Indian Buddhist tantric traditions given to Tibet, Bhutan, and East Asia

Davidson adds that Buddhists and Kapalikas as well as other ascetics (possibly Pasupatas) mingled and discussed their paths at various pilgrimage places and that there were conversions between the different groups. Thus he concludes:

An 18th century Mongolian miniature which depicts a monk generating a tantric visualization.
A Newari Buddhist mandala used for Guru Puja, Nepal, 19th century, gilt copper inlaid with semiprecious stones.
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday

This form of esoteric Buddhism is unique in that it developed in Southeast Asia and has no direct connection to the Indian Tantric Movement of the Mahasiddhas and the tantric establishments of Nalanda and Vikramashila Universities. Thus, it does not make use of the classic Buddhist tantras and has its own independent literature and practice tradition.

The term Tantric Buddhism was not one originally used by those who practiced it. As scholar Isabelle Onians explains: