Universal Coded Character Set
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS, Unicode) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings, improving as characters from previously unrepresented writing systems are added.
The UCS has over 1.1 million possible code points available for use/allocation, but only the first 65,536, which is the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP), had entered into common use before 2000. This situation began changing when the People's Republic of China (PRC) ruled in 2006 that all software sold in its jurisdiction would have to support GB 18030. This required software intended for sale in the PRC to move beyond the BMP.
The system deliberately leaves many code points not assigned to characters, even in the BMP. It does this to allow for future expansion or to minimize conflicts with other encoding forms.
ISO/IEC 10646 defines several character encoding forms for the Universal Coded Character Set. The simplest, UCS-2,[Note 1] uses a single code value (defined as a number, of which one or more represents a code point in general, but for UCS-2 it is strictly one code value that represents a code point) between 0 and 65,535 for each character, and allows exactly two bytes (one 16-bit word) to represent that value. UCS-2 thereby permits a binary representation of every code point in the BMP that represents a character. UCS-2 cannot represent code points outside the BMP.
The first amendment to the original edition of the UCS defined UTF-16, an extension of UCS-2, to represent code points outside the BMP. A range of code points in the S (Special) Zone of the BMP remains unassigned to characters. UCS-2 disallows use of code values for these code points, but UTF-16 allows their use in pairs. Unicode also adopted UTF-16, but in Unicode terminology, the high-half zone elements become "high surrogates" and the low-half zone elements become "low surrogates".[clarification needed]
Another encoding, UCS-4, uses four bytes (total 32 bits) to encode a single character of the codespace. UCS-4 thereby permits a binary representation of every code point in the UCS, including those outside the BMP. As in UCS-2, every encoded character has a fixed length in bytes, which makes it simple to manipulate, but of course it requires twice as much storage as UCS-2.
Currently, the dominant UCS encoding is UTF-8, which is a variable-width encoding designed for backward compatibility with ASCII, and for avoiding the complications of endianness and byte-order marks in UTF-16 and UTF-32. More than 93% of all Web pages are encoded in UTF-8. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) requires all Internet protocols to identify the encoding used for character data, and the supported character encodings must include UTF-8. The Internet Mail Consortium (IMC) recommends that all e-mail programs be able to display and create mail using UTF-8. It is also increasingly being used as the default character encoding in operating systems, programming languages, APIs, and software applications.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) set out to compose the universal character set in 1989, and published the draft of ISO 10646 in 1990. Hugh McGregor Ross was one of its principal architects. That standard differed markedly from the current one. It defined:
for an apparent total of 2,147,483,648 characters, but actually the standard could code only 679,477,248 characters, as the policy forbade byte values of C0 and C1 control codes (0x00 to 0x1F and 0x80 to 0x9F, in hexadecimal notation) in any one of the four bytes specifying a group, plane, row and cell. The Latin capital letter A, for example, had a location in group 0x20, plane 0x20, row 0x20, cell 0x41.
One could code the characters of this primordial ISO 10646 standard in one of three ways:
In 1990, therefore, two initiatives for a universal character set existed: Unicode, with 16 bits for every character (65,536 possible characters), and ISO 10646. The software companies refused to accept the complexity and size requirement of the ISO standard and were able to convince a number of ISO National Bodies to vote against it. The ISO standardizers realized they could not continue to support the standard in its current state and negotiated the unification of their standard with Unicode. Two changes took place: the lifting of the limitation upon characters (prohibition of control code values), thus opening code points like 0x0000101F for allocation; and the synchronization of the repertoire of the Basic Multilingual Plane with that of Unicode.
Meanwhile, in the passage of time, the situation changed in the Unicode standard itself: 65,536 characters came to appear insufficient, and the standard from version 2.0 and onwards supports encoding of 1,112,064 code points from 17 planes by means of the UTF-16 surrogate mechanism. For that reason, ISO 10646 was limited to contain as many characters as could be encoded by UTF-16 and no more, that is, a little over a million characters instead of over 679 million. The UCS-4 encoding of ISO 10646 was incorporated into the Unicode standard with the limitation to the UTF-16 range and under the name UTF-32, although it has almost no use outside programs' internal data.
Rob Pike and Ken Thompson, the designers of the Plan 9 operating system, devised a new, fast and well-designed mixed-width encoding, which came to be called UTF-8, currently the most popular UCS encoding.
ISO 10646 and Unicode have an identical repertoire and numbers—the same characters with the same numbers exist on both standards, although Unicode releases new versions and adds new characters more often. Unicode has rules and specifications outside the scope of ISO 10646. ISO 10646 is a simple character map, an extension of previous standards like ISO 8859. In contrast, Unicode adds rules for collation, normalization of forms, and the bidirectional algorithm for right-to-left scripts such as Arabic and Hebrew. For interoperability between platforms, especially if bidirectional scripts are used, it is not enough to support ISO 10646; Unicode must be implemented.
To support these rules and algorithms, Unicode adds many properties to each character in the set such as properties determining a character's default bidirectional class and properties to determine how the character combines with other characters. If the character represents a numeric value such as the European number ‘8’, or the vulgar fraction ‘¼’, that numeric value is also added as a property of the character. Unicode intends these properties to support interoperable text handling with a mixture of languages.
Some applications support ISO 10646 characters but do not fully support Unicode. One such application, Xterm, can properly display all ISO 10646 characters that have a one-to-one character-to-glyph mapping[clarification needed] and a single directionality. It can handle some combining marks by simple overstriking methods, but cannot display Hebrew (bidirectional), Devanagari (one character to many glyphs) or Arabic (both features). Most GUI applications use standard OS text drawing routines which handle such scripts, although the applications themselves still do not always handle them correctly.
Since 1991, the Unicode Consortium and the ISO have developed The Unicode Standard ("Unicode") and ISO/IEC 10646 in tandem. The repertoire, character names, and code points of Unicode Version 2.0 exactly match those of ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 with its first seven published amendments. After Unicode 3.0 was published in February 2000, corresponding new and updated characters entered the UCS via ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. In 2003, parts 1 and 2 of ISO/IEC 10646 were combined into a single part, which has since had a number of amendments adding characters to the standard in approximate synchrony with the Unicode standard.