Uniform 5-polytope

In geometry, a uniform 5-polytope is a five-dimensional uniform polytope. By definition, a uniform 5-polytope is vertex-transitive and constructed from uniform 4-polytope facets.

The complete set of convex uniform 5-polytopes has not been determined, but many can be made as Wythoff constructions from a small set of symmetry groups. These construction operations are represented by the permutations of rings of the Coxeter diagrams.

There are no nonconvex regular polytopes in 5,6,7,8,9,10,11 and 12 dimensions.

There are 104 known convex uniform 5-polytopes, plus a number of infinite families of duoprism prisms, and polygon-polyhedron duoprisms. All except the grand antiprism prism are based on Wythoff constructions, reflection symmetry generated with Coxeter groups.[citation needed]

The 5-simplex is the regular form in the A5 family. The 5-cube and 5-orthoplex are the regular forms in the B5 family. The bifurcating graph of the D5 family contains the 5-orthoplex, as well as a 5-demicube which is an alternated 5-cube.

Each reflective uniform 5-polytope can be constructed in one or more reflective point group in 5 dimensions by a Wythoff construction, represented by rings around permutations of nodes in a Coxeter diagram. Mirror hyperplanes can be grouped, as seen by colored nodes, separated by even-branches. Symmetry groups of the form [a,b,b,a], have an extended symmetry, [[a,b,b,a]], like [3,3,3,3], doubling the symmetry order. Uniform polytopes in these group with symmetric rings contain this extended symmetry.

If all mirrors of a given color are unringed (inactive) in a given uniform polytope, it will have a lower symmetry construction by removing all of the inactive mirrors. If all the nodes of a given color are ringed (active), an alternation operation can generate a new 5-polytope with chiral symmetry, shown as "empty" circled nodes", but the geometry is not generally adjustable to create uniform solutions.

There are 19 forms based on all permutations of the Coxeter diagrams with one or more rings. (16+4-1 cases)

They are named by Norman Johnson from the Wythoff construction operations upon regular 5-simplex (hexateron).

The A5 family has symmetry of order 720 (6 factorial). 7 of the 19 figures, with symmetrically ringed Coxeter diagrams have doubled symmetry, order 1440.

The coordinates of uniform 5-polytopes with 5-simplex symmetry can be generated as permutations of simple integers in 6-space, all in hyperplanes with normal vector (1,1,1,1,1,1).

This family has 25−1=31 Wythoffian uniform polytopes generated by marking one or more nodes of the Coxeter diagram.

For simplicity it is divided into two subgroups, each with 12 forms, and 7 "middle" forms which equally belong in both.

The 5-cube family of 5-polytopes are given by the convex hulls of the base points listed in the following table, with all permutations of coordinates and sign taken. Each base point generates a distinct uniform 5-polytope. All coordinates correspond with uniform 5-polytopes of edge length 2.

This family has 23 Wythoffian uniform polyhedra, from 3x8-1 permutations of the D5 Coxeter diagram with one or more rings. 15 (2x8-1) are repeated from the B5 family and 8 are unique to this family.

There are 5 finite categorical uniform prismatic families of polytopes based on the nonprismatic uniform 4-polytopes:

This prismatic family has 16 forms. (Three are shared with [3,4,3]×[ ] family)

The A1 x F4 family has symmetry of order 2304 (2*1152). Three polytopes 85, 86 and 89 (green background) have double symmetry [[3,4,3],2], order 4608. The last one, snub 24-cell prism, (blue background) has [3+,4,3,2] symmetry, order 1152.

The grand antiprism prism is the only known convex non-Wythoffian uniform 5-polytope. It has 200 vertices, 1100 edges, 1940 faces (40 pentagons, 500 squares, 1400 triangles), 1360 cells (600 tetrahedra, 40 pentagonal antiprisms, 700 triangular prisms, 20 pentagonal prisms), and 322 hypercells (2 grand antiprisms Grand antiprism.png, 20 pentagonal antiprism prisms Pentagonal antiprismatic prism.png, and 300 tetrahedral prisms Tetrahedral prism.png).

Construction of the reflective 5-dimensional uniform polytopes are done through a Wythoff construction process, and represented through a Coxeter diagram, where each node represents a mirror. Nodes are ringed to imply which mirrors are active. The full set of uniform polytopes generated are based on the unique permutations of ringed nodes. Uniform 5-polytopes are named in relation to the regular polytopes in each family. Some families have two regular constructors and thus may have two ways of naming them.

Here are the primary operators available for constructing and naming the uniform 5-polytopes.

The last operation, the snub, and more generally the alternation, are the operation that can create nonreflective forms. These are drawn with "hollow rings" at the nodes.

The prismatic forms and bifurcating graphs can use the same truncation indexing notation, but require an explicit numbering system on the nodes for clarity.

Coxeter diagram correspondences between families and higher symmetry within diagrams. Nodes of the same color in each row represent identical mirrors. Black nodes are not active in the correspondence.

There are five fundamental affine Coxeter groups, and 13 prismatic groups that generate regular and uniform tessellations in Euclidean 4-space.[4][5]

Non-Wythoffian uniform tessellations in 4-space also exist by elongation (inserting layers), and gyration (rotating layers) from these reflective forms.

There are five kinds of convex regular honeycombs and four kinds of star-honeycombs in H4 space:[6]

There are 5 compact hyperbolic Coxeter groups of rank 5, each generating uniform honeycombs in hyperbolic 4-space as permutations of rings of the Coxeter diagrams. There are also 9 paracompact hyperbolic Coxeter groups of rank 5, each generating uniform honeycombs in 4-space as permutations of rings of the Coxeter diagrams. Paracompact groups generate honeycombs with infinite facets or vertex figures.