# Symplectic vector space

In mathematics, a **symplectic vector space** is a vector space *V* over a field *F* (for example the real numbers **R**) equipped with a symplectic bilinear form.

If the underlying field has characteristic not 2, alternation is equivalent to skew-symmetry. If the characteristic is 2, the skew-symmetry is implied by, but does not imply alternation. In this case every symplectic form is a symmetric form, but not vice versa.

Working in a fixed basis, *ω* can be represented by a matrix. The conditions above are equivalent to this matrix being skew-symmetric, nonsingular, and hollow (all diagonal entries are zero). This should not be confused with a symplectic matrix, which represents a symplectic transformation of the space. If *V* is finite-dimensional, then its dimension must necessarily be even since every skew-symmetric, hollow matrix of odd size has determinant zero. Notice that the condition that the matrix be hollow is not redundant if the characteristic of the field is 2. A symplectic form behaves quite differently from a symmetric form, for example, the scalar product on Euclidean vector spaces.

The standard symplectic space is **R**^{2n} with the symplectic form given by a nonsingular, skew-symmetric matrix. Typically *ω* is chosen to be the block matrix

where *I*_{n} is the *n* × *n* identity matrix. In terms of basis vectors (*x*_{1}, ..., *x _{n}*,

*y*

_{1}, ...,

*y*):

_{n}A modified version of the Gram–Schmidt process shows that any finite-dimensional symplectic vector space has a basis such that *ω* takes this form, often called a * Darboux basis* or symplectic basis.

There is another way to interpret this standard symplectic form. Since the model space **R**^{2n} used above carries much canonical structure which might easily lead to misinterpretation, we will use "anonymous" vector spaces instead. Let *V* be a real vector space of dimension *n* and *V*^{∗} its dual space. Now consider the direct sum *W* = *V* ⊕ *V*^{∗} of these spaces equipped with the following form:

We can interpret the basis vectors as lying in *W* if we write *x*_{i} = (*v*_{i}, 0) and *y*_{i} = (0, *v*_{i}^{∗}). Taken together, these form a complete basis of *W*,

The form *ω* defined here can be shown to have the same properties as in the beginning of this section. On the other hand, every symplectic structure is isomorphic to one of the form *V* ⊕ *V*^{∗}. The subspace *V* is not unique, and a choice of subspace *V* is called a **polarization**. The subspaces that give such an isomorphism are called **Lagrangian subspaces** or simply **Lagrangians**.

Explicitly, given a Lagrangian subspace as defined below, then a choice of basis (*x*_{1}, ..., *x _{n}*) defines a dual basis for a complement, by

*ω*(

*x*

_{i},

*y*

_{j}) =

*δ*

_{ij}.

Just as every symplectic structure is isomorphic to one of the form *V* ⊕ *V*^{∗}, every *complex* structure on a vector space is isomorphic to one of the form *V* ⊕ *V*. Using these structures, the tangent bundle of an *n*-manifold, considered as a 2*n*-manifold, has an almost complex structure, and the *co*tangent bundle of an *n*-manifold, considered as a 2*n*-manifold, has a symplectic structure: *T*_{∗}(*T*^{∗}*M*)_{p} = *T*_{p}(*M*) ⊕ (*T*_{p}(*M*))^{∗}.

The complex analog to a Lagrangian subspace is a *real* subspace, a subspace whose complexification is the whole space: *W* = *V* ⊕ *J* *V*. As can be seen from the standard symplectic form above, every symplectic form on **R**^{2n} is isomorphic to the imaginary part of the standard complex (Hermitian) inner product on **C**^{n} (with the convention of the first argument being anti-linear).

Let *ω* be an alternating bilinear form on an *n*-dimensional real vector space *V*, *ω* ∈ Λ^{2}(*V*). Then *ω* is non-degenerate if and only if *n* is even and *ω*^{n/2} = *ω* ∧ ... ∧ *ω* is a volume form. A volume form on a *n*-dimensional vector space *V* is a non-zero multiple of the *n*-form *e*_{1}^{∗} ∧ ... ∧ *e*_{n}^{∗} where *e*_{1}, *e*_{2}, ..., *e*_{n} is a basis of *V*.

Authors variously define *ω*^{n} or (−1)^{n/2}*ω*^{n} as the **standard volume form**. An occasional factor of *n*! may also appear, depending on whether the definition of the alternating product contains a factor of *n*! or not. The volume form defines an orientation on the symplectic vector space (*V*, *ω*).

Suppose that (*V*, *ω*) and (*W*, *ρ*) are symplectic vector spaces. Then a linear map *f* : *V* → *W* is called a **symplectic map** if the pullback preserves the symplectic form, i.e. *f*^{∗}*ρ* = *ω*, where the pullback form is defined by (*f*^{∗}*ρ*)(*u*, *v*) = *ρ*(*f*(*u*), *f*(*v*)). Symplectic maps are volume- and orientation-preserving.

If *V* = *W*, then a symplectic map is called a **linear symplectic transformation** of *V*. In particular, in this case one has that *ω*(*f*(*u*), *f*(*v*)) = *ω*(*u*, *v*), and so the linear transformation *f* preserves the symplectic form. The set of all symplectic transformations forms a group and in particular a Lie group, called the symplectic group and denoted by Sp(*V*) or sometimes Sp(*V*, *ω*). In matrix form symplectic transformations are given by symplectic matrices.

Let *W* be a linear subspace of *V*. Define the **symplectic complement** of *W* to be the subspace

However, unlike orthogonal complements, *W*^{⊥} ∩ *W* need not be 0. We distinguish four cases:

A Heisenberg group can be defined for any symplectic vector space, and this is the typical way that Heisenberg groups arise.

A vector space can be thought of as a commutative Lie group (under addition), or equivalently as a commutative Lie algebra, meaning with trivial Lie bracket. The Heisenberg group is a central extension of such a commutative Lie group/algebra: the symplectic form defines the commutation, analogously to the canonical commutation relations (CCR), and a Darboux basis corresponds to canonical coordinates – in physics terms, to momentum operators and position operators.

Indeed, by the Stone–von Neumann theorem, every representation satisfying the CCR (every representation of the Heisenberg group) is of this form, or more properly unitarily conjugate to the standard one.

Further, the group algebra of (the dual to) a vector space is the symmetric algebra, and the group algebra of the Heisenberg group (of the dual) is the Weyl algebra: one can think of the central extension as corresponding to quantization or deformation.

Formally, the symmetric algebra of a vector space *V* over a field *F* is the group algebra of the dual, Sym(*V*) := *F*[*V*^{∗}], and the Weyl algebra is the group algebra of the (dual) Heisenberg group *W*(*V*) = *F*[*H*(*V*^{∗})]. Since passing to group algebras is a contravariant functor, the central extension map *H*(*V*) → *V* becomes an inclusion Sym(*V*) → *W*(*V*).