Starch

Certain starches, when mixed with water, will produce a non-Newtonian fluid sometimes nicknamed "oobleck".

Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope

Untreated starch requires heat to thicken or gelatinize. When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water. This is referred to as a pregelatinized starch.

These starch sugars are by far the most common starch based food ingredient and are used as sweeteners in many drinks and foods. They include:

A modified starch is a starch that has been chemically modified to allow the starch to function properly under conditions frequently encountered during processing or storage, such as high heat, high shear, low pH, freeze/thaw and cooling.

As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas. They function as thickeners, extenders, emulsion stabilizers and are exceptional binders in processed meats.