Someshvara III

Old Kannada inscription dated 1129 CE of King Someshvara III at Balligavi, Karnataka state

Someshvara III (IAST: Someśvara; r. 1127 – 1138 CE) was a Western Chalukya king (also known as the Kalyani Chalukyas), the son and successor of Vikramaditya VI.[1] He ascended the throne of the Western Chalukya Kingdom in 1126 CE,[2] or 1127 CE.[1]

Someshvara III, the third king in this dynasty named after the Hindu god Shiva made numerous land grants to cause of Shaivism and its monastic scholarship.[3] These monasteries in the Indian peninsula became centers of the study of the Vedas and Hindu philosophies such as the Nyaya school.[3] Someshvara III died in 1138 CE, and succeeded by his son Jagadekamalla.[4]

Someshvara was a noted historian, scholar, and poet.[1] He authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music – making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.[4][5] He also authored, in Sanskrit, an incomplete biography of his father Vikramaditya VI, called Vikramankabhyudaya.[1] His scholarly pursuits was the reason he held such titles as Sarvadnya-bhupa (lit, "the king who knows everything") and Bhulokamala ("the king who is lord of all living beings").[4]

Someshvara III is credited with composing Mānasollāsa (Sanskrit: मानसोल्लास) (meaning "the refresher of the mind"[2]) or the Abhilaṣitārtha Cintāmaṇi (the magical stone that fulfills desires). It is an encyclopedic work [6] in Sanskrit. The treatise deals with a wide range of topics (100 topics[6]), which include the approach to acquire a kingdom, methods of establishing it and royal enjoyment. It contains valuable information regarding Indian art, architecture, cuisine, ornaments, sports, music and dance.[5]

Vikramankabhyudaya, a text found in 1925, is a historical document written by Someshvara III, in the form of a biography of his father.[1] The first chapter provides a detailed description of the geography and people of Karnataka, the second chapter explains the grandeur of Kalyan, the capital city of the Western Chalukya Empire.[1] The long third chapter pertains to the history of the Chalukyas starting with a legendary story ending with the sixteenth year of Someshvara III's father, Vikramaditya VI reign when the latter began his war of victory, "Digvijaya".[7] However, the last chapter is incomplete as it terminates abruptly as: "The Brahmanas and the ladies on that day...."[7]