Riemann–Roch theorem

Relation between genus, degree, and dimension of function spaces over surfaces

The Riemann–Hurwitz formula concerning (ramified) maps between Riemann surfaces or algebraic curves is a consequence of the Riemann–Roch theorem.

Other versions of the arithmetic Riemann–Roch theorem make use of Arakelov theory to resemble the traditional Riemann–Roch theorem more exactly.

The first main achievement of F. K. Schmidt is the discovery that the classical theorem of Riemann–Roch on compact Riemann surfaces can be transferred to function fields with finite base field. Actually, his proof of the Riemann–Roch theorem works for arbitrary perfect base fields, not necessarily finite.

It is foundational in the sense that the subsequent theory for curves tries to refine the information it yields (for example in the Brill–Noether theory).