President of India

Ram Nath Kovind is the 14th and current president, having assumed office on 25 July 2017.

Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive. He represents the Nation but does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation. His place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known.

Executive – Although the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister, it is ultimately the president who gives the final order. Hence, declining the prime minister's advice or withholding it for long without being able to constitutionally challenge this decision is beyond the power of the president. Similarly, the prime minister can object to any decision taken alone by the President without consulting the cabinet.

Judiciary – Only the judiciary has the power to convert a death sentence to life imprisonment.

, chairperson of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly of India

As per Article 142, it is the duty of the president to enforce the decrees of the supreme court.

This type of emergency needs the approval of the parliament within 2 months. It can last up to a maximum of three years via extensions after each 6-month period. However, after one year it can be extended only if

A person shall not be eligible for election as president if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

Certain office-holders, however, are permitted to stand as presidential candidates. These are:

In the event that the vice-president, a state governor or a minister is elected president, they are considered to have vacated their previous office on the date they begin serving as president.

A member of parliament or a State Legislature can seek election to the office of the president but if he is elected as president, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in parliament or State Legislature on the date on which he enters upon his office as President [Article 59(1)].

Article 57 provides that a person who holds, or who has held, office as president shall, subject to the other provisions of this constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office.

Article 56(1) of the constitution provides that the president shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters his office. According to Article 62, an election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of Article 56, be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. To meet the contingency of an election to the office of President not being completed in time due to unforeseen circumstances like countermanding of an election due to death of a candidate or on account of the postponement of the poll for any valid reason, Article 56(1)(c) provides that the president shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

Certain conditions, per Article 59 of the Indian constitution, debar an otherwise eligible citizen from contesting the presidential elections. The conditions are:

Each elector casts a different number of votes. The general principle is that the total number of votes cast by Members of parliament equals the total number of votes cast by State Legislators. Also, legislators from larger states cast more votes than those from smaller states. Finally, the number of legislators in state matters; if a state has few legislators, then each legislator has more votes; if a state has many legislators, then each legislator has fewer votes.

The actual calculation for votes cast by a particular state is calculated by dividing the state's population by 1000, which is divided again by the number of legislators from the State voting in the electoral college. This number is the number of votes per legislator in a given state. Every elected member of the parliament enjoys the same number of votes, which may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of legislative assemblies by the total number of elected representatives of the parliament.

I, (name), do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of the Republic of India, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law, and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of India.

A vice-president who acts as or discharges the functions of the president has all the powers and immunities of the president and is entitled to the same emoluments as the president. When a vice-president discharges the duties of the president, he/she does not function as the Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.

The president's role as defender of the constitution and the powers as Head of State, especially in relation to those exercised by the prime minister as leader of the government, have changed over time. In particular, Presidents have made a number of interventions into government and lawmaking, which have established and challenged some conventions concerning presidential intervention.