Optative mood

Although English has no morphological optative, analogous constructions impute an optative meaning, including the use of certain modal verbs:

Periphrastic constructions include if only together with a subjunctive complement:

A somewhat archaic Dutch saying, 'Leve de Koning' ("long live the king") is another example of how the optative still is present in Germanic languages today.

Likewise in Latin, the newer subjunctive is based on the Indo-European optative. With this change in Latin, several old subjunctive forms became future forms. Accordingly, the prohibitive (negative desire and prohibition) was formed with the combination of *ne + verb form in the optative present.

All the dialects have verbal forms in the imperative mood (Agintera), even for commands concerning the 3rd person, both singular and plural:

For commands concerning the 1st person, present subjunctive forms are used:

The optative mood can also be expressed by suffixing 様に yō ni to the verb, typically the polite form. For instance, "may you have a pleasant trip" 楽しい旅になります様に.

In Sumerian, the optative of the 1st person is formed differently from the other persons: