North Africa

The countries of North Africa share a large amount of ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity with the Middle East.

In this way, "standard" geography has determined aridity to be the boundary of the ecumene. It identifies settlements based on visible activity without regard for social or political organizations of space in vast, purportedly "empty" areas. It gives only cursory acknowledgement to what makes Saharan geography, and for that matter, world geography unique: mobility and the routes by which it flows.

Further information in the sections of History of science and technology in Africa: