In mathematics, a negative number represents an opposite. In the real number system, a negative number is a number that is less than zero. Negative numbers are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, a decrease in some quantity may be thought of as a negative increase. If a quantity, such as the charge on an electron, may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the common-sense idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, −(−3) = 3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original value.
Negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a negative quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced "minus three" or "negative three". To help tell the difference between a subtraction operation and a negative number, occasionally the negative sign is placed slightly higher than the minus sign (as a superscript). Conversely, a number that is greater than zero is called positive; zero is usually (but not always) thought of as neither positive nor negative. The positivity of a number may be emphasized by placing a plus sign before it, e.g. +3. In general, the negativity or positivity of a number is referred to as its sign.
Every real number other than zero is either positive or negative. The non-negative whole numbers are referred to as natural numbers (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3...), while the positive and negative whole numbers (together with zero) are referred to as integers. (Some definitions of the natural numbers exclude zero.)
In bookkeeping, amounts owed are often represented by red numbers, or a number in parentheses, as an alternative notation to represent negative numbers.
Negative numbers appeared for the first time in history in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, which in its present form dates from the period of the Chinese Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220), but may well contain much older material. Liu Hui (c. 3rd century) established rules for adding and subtracting negative numbers. By the 7th century, Indian mathematicians such as Brahmagupta were describing the use of negative numbers. Islamic mathematicians further developed the rules of subtracting and multiplying negative numbers and solved problems with negative coefficients. Prior to the concept of negative numbers, mathematicians such as Diophantus considered negative solutions to problems "false" and equations requiring negative solutions were described as absurd. Western mathematicians like Leibniz (1646–1716) held that negative numbers were invalid, but still used them in calculations.
Negative numbers can be thought of as resulting from the subtraction of a larger number from a smaller. For example, negative three is the result of subtracting three from zero:
In general, the subtraction of a larger number from a smaller yields a negative result, with the magnitude of the result being the difference between the two numbers. For example,
The relationship between negative numbers, positive numbers, and zero is often expressed in the form of a number line:
Numbers appearing farther to the right on this line are greater, while numbers appearing farther to the left are less. Thus zero appears in the middle, with the positive numbers to the right and the negative numbers to the left.
Note that a negative number with greater magnitude is considered less. For example, even though (positive) 8 is greater than (positive) 5, written
(Because, for example, if you have £−8, a debt of £8, you would have less after adding, say £10, to it than if you have £−5.) It follows that any negative number is less than any positive number, so
In the context of negative numbers, a number that is greater than zero is referred to as positive. Thus every real number other than zero is either positive or negative, while zero itself is not considered to have a sign. Positive numbers are sometimes written with a plus sign in front, e.g. +3 denotes a positive three.
Because zero is neither positive nor negative, the term nonnegative is sometimes used to refer to a number that is either positive or zero, while nonpositive is used to refer to a number that is either negative or zero. Zero is a neutral number.
The minus sign "−" signifies the operator for both the binary (two-operand) operation of subtraction (as in y − z) and the unary (one-operand) operation of negation (as in −x, or twice in −(−x)). A special case of unary negation occurs when it operates on a positive number, in which case the result is a negative number (as in −5).
The ambiguity of the "−" symbol does not generally lead to ambiguity in arithmetical expressions, because the order of operations makes only one interpretation or the other possible for each "−". However, it can lead to confusion and be difficult for a person to understand an expression when operator symbols appear adjacent to one another. A solution can be to parenthesize the unary "−" along with its operand.
For example, the expression 7 + −5 may be clearer if written 7 + (−5) (even though they mean exactly the same thing formally). The subtraction expression 7 – 5 is a different expression that doesn't represent the same operations, but it evaluates to the same result.
Sometimes in elementary schools a number may be prefixed by a superscript minus sign or plus sign to explicitly distinguish negative and positive numbers as in
Addition of two negative numbers is very similar to addition of two positive numbers. For example,
The idea is that two debts can be combined into a single debt of greater magnitude.
When adding together a mixture of positive and negative numbers, one can think of the negative numbers as positive quantities being subtracted. For example:
In the first example, a credit of 8 is combined with a debt of 3, which yields a total credit of 5. If the negative number has greater magnitude, then the result is negative:
As discussed above, it is possible for the subtraction of two non-negative numbers to yield a negative answer:
In general, subtraction of a positive number yields the same result as the addition of a negative number of equal magnitude. Thus
On the other hand, subtracting a negative number yields the same result as the addition a positive number of equal magnitude. (The idea is that losing a debt is the same thing as gaining a credit.) Thus
When multiplying numbers, the magnitude of the product is always just the product of the two magnitudes. The sign of the product is determined by the following rules:
The reason behind the first example is simple: adding three −2's together yields −6:
The reasoning behind the second example is more complicated. The idea again is that losing a debt is the same thing as gaining a credit. In this case, losing two debts of three each is the same as gaining a credit of six:
The convention that a product of two negative numbers is positive is also necessary for multiplication to follow the distributive law. In this case, we know that
These rules lead to another (equivalent) rule—the sign of any product a × b depends on the sign of a as follows:
The justification for why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number can be observed in the analysis of complex numbers.
The sign rules for division are the same as for multiplication. For example,
If dividend and divisor have the same sign, the result is positive, if they have different signs the result is negative.
That is, the negation of a positive number is the additive inverse of the number.
This identity holds for any positive number x. It can be made to hold for all real numbers by extending the definition of negation to include zero and negative numbers. Specifically:
The absolute value of a number is the non-negative number with the same magnitude. For example, the absolute value of −3 and the absolute value of 3 are both equal to 3, and the absolute value of 0 is 0.
In a similar manner to rational numbers, we can extend the natural numbers N to the integers Z by defining integers as an ordered pair of natural numbers (a, b). We can extend addition and multiplication to these pairs with the following rules:
We define an equivalence relation ~ upon these pairs with the following rule:
This equivalence relation is compatible with the addition and multiplication defined above, and we may define Z to be the quotient set N²/~, i.e. we identify two pairs (a, b) and (c, d) if they are equivalent in the above sense. Note that Z, equipped with these operations of addition and multiplication, is a ring, and is in fact, the prototypical example of a ring.
The negative of a number is unique, as is shown by the following proof.
Let x be a number and let y be its negative. Suppose y′ is another negative of x. By an axiom of the real number system
And so, x + y′ = x + y. Using the law of cancellation for addition, it is seen that y′ = y. Thus y is equal to any other negative of x. That is, y is the unique negative of x.
For a long time, negative solutions to problems were considered "false". In Hellenistic Egypt, the Greek mathematician Diophantus in the 3rd century AD referred to an equation that was equivalent to 4x + 20 = 4 (which has a negative solution) in Arithmetica, saying that the equation was absurd. For this reason Greek geometers were able to solve geometrically all forms of the quadratic equation which give positive roots; while they could take no account of others.
Negative numbers appear for the first time in history in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art (Jiu zhang suan-shu), which in its present form dates from the period of the Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220), but may well contain much older material. The mathematician Liu Hui (c. 3rd century) established rules for the addition and subtraction of negative numbers. The historian Jean-Claude Martzloff theorized that the importance of duality in Chinese natural philosophy made it easier for the Chinese to accept the idea of negative numbers. The Chinese were able to solve simultaneous equations involving negative numbers. The Nine Chapters used red counting rods to denote positive coefficients and black rods for negative. This system is the exact opposite of contemporary printing of positive and negative numbers in the fields of banking, accounting, and commerce, wherein red numbers denote negative values and black numbers signify positive values. Liu Hui writes:
Now there are two opposite kinds of counting rods for gains and losses, let them be called positive and negative. Red counting rods are positive, black counting rods are negative.
The ancient Indian Bakhshali Manuscript carried out calculations with negative numbers, using "+" as a negative sign. The date of the manuscript is uncertain. LV Gurjar dates it no later than the 4th century, Hoernle dates it between the third and fourth centuries, Ayyangar and Pingree dates it to the 8th or 9th centuries, and George Gheverghese Joseph dates it to about AD 400 and no later than the early 7th century,
During the 7th century AD, negative numbers were used in India to represent debts. The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta, in Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta (written c. AD 630), discussed the use of negative numbers to produce the general form quadratic formula that remains in use today. He also found negative solutions of quadratic equations and gave rules regarding operations involving negative numbers and zero, such as "A debt cut off from nothingness becomes a credit; a credit cut off from nothingness becomes a debt." He called positive numbers "fortunes", zero "a cipher", and negative numbers "debts".A Book on What Is Necessary from the Science of Arithmetic for Scribes and Businessmen
the product of a negative number—al-nāqiṣ—by a positive number—al-zāʾid—is negative, and by a negative number is positive. If we subtract a negative number from a higher negative number, the remainder is their negative difference. The difference remains positive if we subtract a negative number from a lower negative number. If we subtract a negative number from a positive number, the remainder is their positive sum. If we subtract a positive number from an empty power (martaba khāliyya), the remainder is the same negative, and if we subtract a negative number from an empty power, the remainder is the same positive number.
In the 12th century in India, Bhāskara II gave negative roots for quadratic equations but rejected them because they were inappropriate in the context of the problem. He stated that a negative value is "in this case not to be taken, for it is inadequate; people do not approve of negative roots."
European mathematicians, for the most part, resisted the concept of negative numbers until the middle of the 19th century (!) In the 18th century it was common practice to ignore any negative results derived from equations, on the assumption that they were meaningless. In A.D. 1759, Francis Maseres, an English mathematician, wrote that negative numbers "darken the very whole doctrines of the equations and make dark of the things which are in their nature excessively obvious and simple". He came to the conclusion that negative numbers were nonsensical.
Fibonacci allowed negative solutions in financial problems where they could be interpreted as debits (chapter 13 of Liber Abaci, AD 1202) and later as losses (in Flos). In the 15th century, Nicolas Chuquet, a Frenchman, used negative numbers as exponents but referred to them as "absurd numbers". In his 1544 Arithmetica Integra Michael Stifel also dealt with negative numbers, also calling them numeri absurdi. In 1545, Gerolamo Cardano, in his Ars Magna, provided the first satisfactory treatment of negative numbers in Europe. He did not allow negative numbers in his consideration of cubic equations, so he had to treat, for example, x3 + ax = b separately from x3 = ax + b (with a,b > 0 in both cases). In all, Cardano was driven to the study of thirteen different types of cubic equations, each expressed purely in terms of positive numbers. (Cardano also dealt with complex numbers, but understandably liked them even less.)