Mount Holyoke College

Mount Holyoke College is a private liberal arts women's college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. The college was founded in 1837 as the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary by Mary Lyon, a pioneer in education for women. It is the oldest institution within the Seven Sisters schools, an alliance of East Coast liberal arts colleges that was originally created to provide women with education equivalent to that provided in the then men-only Ivy League.[6] Mount Holyoke is part of the region's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst; Through its membership, students are allowed to take courses at any other member institution.

Undergraduate admissions are restricted to women, transgender, and nonbinary students.[7] It was the first member of the Seven Sisters to introduce an admissions policy that was inclusive to transgender students. However, all graduate programs are open to applicants regardless of gender. Unlike the open curriculums of the other liberal arts schools in the Five College Consortium, Mount Holyoke undergraduates are required to take at least one class each in the humanities, science or mathematics, social sciences, and foreign language, as well as a physical education requirement.

The college's 800-acre (3.2 km2) campus includes the Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, the John Payson Williston Observatory, and a botanic garden, and awards the Glascock Prize annually. Alumni and affiliates include notable poets, authors, feminists, academics, entertainers, scientists, politicians, and civil rights activists, as well as recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Olympic Gold Medal, Rhodes Scholarship, Emmy Award, and Academy Award.

Mount Holyoke was founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Lyon is considered to have been an innovator in women's education.[8] Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was one of several Christian institutions of higher education for young women established during the first half of the 19th century. Lyon's contemporaries include Sarah Pierce (Litchfield Female Academy, 1792); Catharine Beecher (Hartford Female Seminary, 1823); Zilpah P. Grant Banister (Ipswich Female Seminary, 1828); and George Washington Doane (St. Mary's Hall, 1837 now called Doane Academy). Prior to founding Mount Holyoke, Lyon contributed to the development of both Hartford Female Seminary and Ipswich Female Seminary. She was also involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary (now Wheaton College) in 1834.[8] Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was chartered as a teaching seminary in 1836[9] and opened its doors to students on 8 November 1837. Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke.[10]

According to historian Amanda Porterfield, Lyon created Mount Holyoke to be "a religious institution that offered a model of Christian society for all to see."[11] Students "were required to attend church services, chapel talks, prayer meetings, and Bible study groups. Twice a day teachers and students spent time in private devotions. Every dorm room had two large lighted closets to give roommates privacy during their devotions".[12] Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was the sister school to Andover Seminary. Some Andover graduates looked to marry students from the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before becoming Christian missionaries because the (ABCFM) required its missionaries to be married before starting their missions. By 1859 there were more than 60 missionary alumnae; by 1887 the school's alumnae comprised one fifth of all female American missionaries for the ABCFM; and by the end of the century, 248 of its alumnae had entered the mission field.[13]

Mount Holyoke Female Seminary received its collegiate charter in 1888, becoming Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. The change in admission from Seminary to College included fundraising by the Trustees, an overhaul of the entrance requirements, and course catalogue. Entrance exams were introduced at this time, scheduled in June or September at the college. In 1889, students traveling from the midwest could take these examinations in Freeport, Illinois, and within a few years, this was expanded to other cities. Many additions were made to the course catalog, and starting in the 1889 academic year, students could choose to pursue degrees of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.[14] Within 4 years, the seminary enrollment dropped from 269 to 8. In 1893, the seminary course was discontinued, and the new title Mount Holyoke College was authorized.[14]

A movement towards what was referred to as cottage-style living started in 1889 by the New York Association[15] after the change to Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. $15,000 was raised, and plans were put in place for Mary Brigham Cottage, with accommodations for the president and thirty students, with priority given to those in the collegiate course. At the time, two South Hadley families agreed to host boarders, and some students were permitted to live at the hotel. President Elizabeth Mead deemed both of these options unsatisfactory, and pushed the Trustees to build yet another cottage. Mrs. Mead was ready to relieve the students of a large share of the drudgery of domestic work that had made up a good portion of their studies since Mary Lyon's conception of the seminary. From 1895 to 1996 the trustees allotted funds for the employment of four women to wash the dinner dishes that had formerly constituted the task of eight or ten students.[14]

On February 28, 1987, the United States Postal Service's Great Americans series issued a postage stamp featuring Mary Lyon, in honor of Mount Holyoke's Sesquicentennial (Mount Holyoke's 150th anniversary).[16][17]

The Mount Holyoke chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905. It has been a sister school to Women's Christian College in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India since 1920.

In the early 1970s Mount Holyoke had a long debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On 6 November 1971 the board of trustees voted to remain a women's college.[18]

At Convocation on September 2, 2014, President Lynn Pasquerella announced a new policy allowing the admission of transgender individuals of both sexes to the college,[19] as well as the admission of students whose gender identities are non-binary.[20] It was the first Seven Sister College to implement such policy.[21]

The 2020 annual ranking by U.S. News & World Report categorizes Mount Holyoke as "more selective".[22]

For the Class of 2023 (enrolling fall 2019), Mount Holyoke received 3,908 applications, accepted 1,491 (38.2%) and enrolled 496.[23] The middle 50% range of SAT scores for enrolled students was 1320-1450 for the composite, 630–720 for evidence-based reading and writing, and 640–770 for math, while the middle 50% range for the ACT composite score was 27–32.[23]

U.S. News & World Report's 2021 rankings ranked Mount Holyoke the 34th-best liberal arts college in the nation, and tied for 30th for "Best Undergraduate Teaching".[28] In 2019, Forbes rated Mount Holyoke 137th overall in its America's Top Colleges ranking, which includes 650 military academies, national universities, and liberal arts colleges. Kiplinger's Personal Finance places the school 37th in its 2017 ranking of best-value liberal arts colleges in the United States.[29] In 2019, CNBC published a "20 Best Value Colleges" list that included Mount Holyoke.[30]

Mount Holyoke offers 50 departmental and interdepartmental majors, including the option to design a special major. The primary degree conferred is the Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree, for which students complete 128 semester credits (one standard course equals 4 credits). At least 68 credits must be earned from course work outside the major department, across the three curricular divisions: humanities, science and mathematics, and social sciences. Study of a foreign language and completion of a multicultural perspectives course are also required.[31]

Mount Holyoke's membership in the Five College Consortium allows students to enroll in courses at nearby Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. They may also complete one of 12 Five College Certificates—among them African studies, Buddhist studies, coastal and marine sciences, cognitive neuroscience, international relations, and Middle Eastern studies—in lieu of a minor.[32]

In addition to the BA, Mount Holyoke offers three master's degrees: a coed master of arts in teaching,[35] a master of arts in mathematics teaching,[36] and a master's in psychology.[37] Other programs include dual-degree programs in engineering with the California Institute of Technology, the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst;[38] the Frances Perkins Program,[39] for women over the age of 24 who wish to complete the requirements for a bachelor of arts degree; and the Postbaccalaureate Studies Program,[40] for students who have already earned an undergraduate degree and wish to complete additional course work in preparation for graduate work in medicine, nursing, veterinary medicine, dentistry, or physical therapy science.

Three academic centers—the Weissman Center for Leadership,[41] the McCulloch Center for Global Initiatives,[42] the Miller Worley Center for the Environment[43]—support the academic program through public lectures by visiting scholars, conferences on issues of pressing concern, mentoring and internship opportunities, and hands-on learning experiences. The Weissman Center's Speaking, Arguing, and Writing (SAW) Program[44] provides opportunities for developing leadership and communication skills, including the ability to effectively frame, articulate, and advocate positions. The Community-Based Learning Program[45] links students with community-based organizations in courses that combine analysis and action.

Mount Holyoke has study abroad programs and exchanges for full-year or semester study in France, Senegal, Costa Rica, Chile, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Germany, Spain, and the UK, as well as a summer program in China and January Term programs in the Republic of Georgia and South Africa. The College is also affiliated with more than 150 study abroad programs in more than 50 colleges and students have the opportunity to petition any programs with which the College is not already affiliated. The College also encourages international internships and research for semester, year, summer or January terms. Each year more than 200 Mount Holyoke students, representing approximately 40 percent of the junior class, study for a semester or academic year at universities and programs abroad.[46]

Through the school's membership in the Twelve College Exchange Program, Mount Holyoke students can study at one of the following 12 other schools for one semester or a full year:[47]

Mount Holyoke's library includes more than 740,000 print volumes, 1,600 periodicals, and more than 140,000 electronic resources. Its first librarian was alumna Mary Nutting. Through the Five College Consortium, students have access to more than 9 million volumes.[48] Computer support is provided.[49] The MEWS (Mediated Educational Work Space) supports collaborative multimedia learning with group project rooms, wall-mounted plasma displays, a digitization center, and a faculty development area.[50] In 2013, "Clear and Gold Tower," a glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly, was installed in the Williston Library's atrium.[51]

A number of faculty are nationally and internationally recognized for their research and writing achievements, including Christopher Benfey (literary scholar), Joseph Ellis (historian), Susan Barry (neurobiologist), Mark McMenamin (geologist and paleontologist) and Becky Wai-Ling Packard (psychologist).

Mount Holyoke administrator and art professor Rie Hachiyanagi made international headlines when she was accused of attempting to murder a regular member of the faculty in December 2019.[52] Hachiyanagi allegedly used a fire poker, large rock, and a gardening shears to attempt to kill her victim.[53] Hachiyanagi's alleged victim survived the attack.[54]

Home of Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge, 'Sycamores', a former dormitory for the college
John Payson Williston Observatory, Mount Holyoke College, ca. 1945–1955
Seminary Building, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, viewed from the southwest, South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1886

The 800-acre (3.2 km2) campus was designed and landscaped between 1896 and 1922 by the landscape architecture firm of Olmsted and Sons. The campus includes a botanic garden, two lakes, several waterfalls, tennis courts, stables and woodland riding trails. It is also home to the Mount Holyoke College Art Museum which is part of the Five College Museums/Historic Deerfield and the Museums10. An independent bookstore, The Odyssey Bookshop, is located directly across from the campus in the college-owned Village Commons.[55] Mount Holyoke has instituted “The Big Turn Off” energy conservation campaign.[56] It also focuses on "green" building with five LEED certified buildings on campus.[57] It has reduced its environmental impact by recycling 40% of waste and composting as well as using produce grown in the student-run organic garden in dining halls.[58]

The Seminary Building (1837) contained classrooms, parlors and rooms for students and faculty, the original library, and a periodical reading room. A south wing was added in 1841, a north wing in 1853, a gymnasium and laundry in 1865. All were destroyed by fire in 1896.[59] Upon the burning of the college building in September 1896, Treasurer Williston announced the pressing need for a new chapel building, a new gymnasium, and a series of cottage dormitories in the modern style.[14] This style of separated buildings allowed for a flexibility of fundraising that was attractive to the Trustees, while still providing the students with the resources and accommodations they needed. In 1897, Mary Lyon Hall and Mary Lyon Chapel were built, as well as dormitories Brigham, Safford, Porter, and Pearsons. Blanchard Gymnasium was completed in 1899.[60]

John Payson Williston Observatory (1881) was given in memory of the Willistons' eldest son and built to be ready for the rare transit of Venus in 1882. It is the oldest academic building on campus.[61]

The school's iconic entrance, the Fidelia Nash Field gate, was dedicated in 1912. It was a gift of its namesake's children Helen Field James and Joseph Nash Field. Their brother Marshall Field had died in 1906.

The home of Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge, known as "The Sycamores", served as a dormitory for the college from 1915 to 1970.[62][63] The mansion, built in 1788 by Colonel Woodbridge, is on the National Register of Historic Places.

Mount Holyoke is also close to the cities of Amherst and Northampton as well as to two malls: Hampshire Mall and Holyoke Mall. The Mount Holyoke Range State Park is also close to the campus. The college is named after the westernmost mountain of the range Mount Holyoke which was named by colonial surveyors in the 1600s.

Mount Holyoke is consistently named on "Most Beautiful College Campuses" lists, including The Huffington Post,[64] The Princeton Review,[65] and Architectural Digest.[66] Its buildings were designed between 1896 and 1960. It has a Donald Ross-designed 18-hole golf course, The Orchards, which hosted the U.S. Women's Open in 2004.[67]

The college has 21 residence halls as well as apartments and "annex" spaces in which to house students, and an overwhelming majority of students live on campus (98%). Each residence hall reserves a quarter of its rooms for housing first-year students[68] with the exception of Pearsons Annex, which is reserved for living learning communities,[69] and Dickinson House, which is reserved for Frances Perkins Scholars.[70] Most residence halls house students from all four class years at any given time. Six of the residence halls have full dining halls, though have been decommissioned, and new plans for repurposing are pending.[71] Residence halls have a variety of architectural styles and ages.

Mount Holyoke is a member of the Pioneer Valley's Five College Consortium,[72] the Consortium of Liberal Arts Colleges,[73] the Annapolis Group,[74] the Oberlin Group,[75] and the Consortium on Financing Higher Education.[76]

WMHC (91.5 FM) is a radio station licensed to serve South Hadley, Massachusetts. The station is owned by Mount Holyoke College and is one of the oldest stations run by women.[77]

In 2019, Mount Holyoke's 2,190 undergraduates included 1,021 White students, 587 international students, 183 Asian American students, 162 Latina students, 102 African American students, 2 Native American students, and 96 multiracial students.[78]

Students may enroll in classes at Amherst, Hampshire, and Smith Colleges as well as the University of Massachusetts, Amherst through the Five College Consortium.

Mount Holyoke offers a number of student groups and organizations. Themes include Art, Academics, Club Sports, Entertainment & the Performing Arts, Politics & Activism, Governing Organizations and Religious organizations.[79]

Mount Holyoke offers 14 varsity sports programs and seven competitive club sports teams. The College is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III and the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (NEWMAC) as well as the New England Rowing Conference (NERC).[90] Facilities include a lighted synthetic multipurpose turf field surrounded by an eight-lane track with a nine-lane straightaway; Kendall Sports and Dance Complex housing a swimming pool and separate diving well; gymnasium with basketball, volleyball, and badminton courts; weight room; cardiovascular area; one-acre (4,000 m2) field house with indoor track and tennis courts; squash courts; racquetball courts; and three studios for dance, aerobics, yoga, and other activities; The Orchards, an 18-hole golf course (home to the 2004 U.S. Women's Open) designed by Donald Ross; and a 60-stall equestrian center with two indoor arenas (100' × 256' and 70' × 130'), an outdoor show ring, permanent fibar dressage arena, outdoor cross-country courses, and a boathouse finished for Spring 2010.[91]

Several feature films reference Mount Holyoke. Prominent among them are:

An urban legend says that the characters of the hit 1960's cartoon Scooby Doo Where Are You! are said to be modeled after the Five College Consortium. Scooby Doo is meant to be University of Massachusetts Amherst, Shaggy is Hampshire, Fred is Amherst, Daphne is Mount Holyoke and Velma is Smith. These characterizations are made under the assumptions of stereotypes of the students from the Five Colleges.[97]