Korean martial arts
Taekkyon has many whole-body techniques with fully integrated armwork. Although Taekkyon primarily utilizes kicking, punching, and arm strikes thrown from a mobile stance and does not provide a framework for groundfighting, it does incorporate a variety of different throws, takedowns, and grappling techniques to complement its striking focus.
Within Korea each region had their own style of Subak. Subak styles from region to region differed slightly.
Only two Subak styles remain today. One is taught as purely as Subak. And the other Subak style has been absorbed into modern Taekkyon by Master Shin Han Song.
When Master Shin Han Song tried to resurrect Taekkyon after the Korean war, he sought instruction from the Taekkyon master Song Doki, & instruction from the Subak master Il Dong. Shin Han Song then combined Taekkyon & Subak together.
Subak is of ancient origins and is different from Soo Bahk Do, which is a modern martial art using the same name (same pronunciation yet different spelling).
Tang Soo Do is a striking martial art, which was developed during the 20th century, yet it has its roots in ancient Korean martial arts, as well as martial arts from other nations. Although the name "Tang Soo Do" had been used before by the likes of Master Wong Kuk Lee, it is Hwang Kee who is usually credited as the creator of what is today known as Tang Soo Do, or Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do, the school from which all others come from. As a child, Hwang Kee witnessed a man defend himself from several assailants using kicking techniques. (He was most likely using Taekkyon.) He followed this man home and watched him train from a distance. When asked, the man refused to teach Hwang Kee, but he began to watch the man, mimicking his movements, eventually developing such ability that he was considered a master. He also seems to have studied Karate briefly, as recollected by Wong Kuk Lee. In his travels, he also studied Yang style Tai Chi Chuan and a Northern style of Kung Fu, particularly the Tang Tui exercise, under a Chinese Kung Fu master named Yang. Combining his knowledge of various martial arts, he sought to teach his art as Hwa Soo Do, the Way of the Flowering Hand, but it proved unpopular. He then decided to rename his art Tang Soo Do, the Way of the Chinese Hand, in order to link it to the more popular practice of Karate at the time, and put together a Hyung (forms) curriculum based on the Karate kata found in Shotokan Karate, as described by Gichin Funakoshi in one of his books. This particular style, Tang Soo Do, differentiated itself from Karate due to its emphasis on kicking, a vestige of the old Taekkyon arts.
Tang Soo Do sets itself apart from other arts by identifying as a traditional martial art solely interested in self-defense, eschewing sport-orientation. It consists mostly of striking techniques focused towards self-defense, but also features several stand-up grappling and joint-manipulation techniques in its ho sin sul (self defense) and il sook si dae ryun (one-step sparring) curriculums. Tang Soo Do has had a sizable impact on the martial arts world, as the first example of Korean martial arts seen in the West, where people like Chuck Norris introduced and popularized its most characteristic techniques, such as the spinning back kick, spinning hook kick and spinning back fist. Curtis Bush, Dennis Alexio and Hector Peña have all used Tang Soo Do to become kickboxing and full contact world champions, and martial arts action stars the likes of Chuck Norris, Cynthia Rothrock and Hwang Jang Lee have popularized the art in film, television and, through homages, in video games as well.
However, the word 夷 was first used in Chinese history referring to the people South of Yellow River over 5,000 years ago. Later, when Yi 夷 people joined the tribes of Hua Xia [華夏] Chinese, 夷 meant outsiders. By that time, DongYi refers to Korean, as in Outsiders from the East
Founding of Joseon dynasty saw the retention of the composite bow as the main stay of the Joseon military. Archery was the main martial event tested during the military portion of the national service exam held annually from 1392 to 1894. Under Joseon, archery reached its zenith, resulting in the invention of pyeonjeon, which saw great service against the Japanese in 1592 and against the Manchus in the early 1600s.
The traditional Taekkyon system has no fixed curriculum. Every student is treated individually and thus the lesson is always different, although all of the basic skills are eventually covered. The basic skills are taught in temporary patterns, that evolve as the student learns. Basic skills are expounded on and variations of each single skill are then practised, in multiple new combinations. When the student has learned all the variations of the basic movements & techniques, and can intermix all of them proficiently, they're encouraged to perform the Taekkyon Dance. Taekkyon is a Ten-year technique.
NOTE: remove the word "nim" for the actual titles as "nim" is an honorific meaning "sir" or its equivalent.
These Korean terms are based on Confucian rank systems (with the same Chinese characters). Many schools also make use of Korean terminology and numbers during practice, even if located outside [South] Korea.
In some styles, like taekgyeon, the hanbok is worn instead of a tobok. The v-neck of many styles of taekwondo uniform was supposedly fashioned after the hanbok, but may simply be a modification for a pullover top to accommodate the modesty of female practitioners. (Standard jacket construction often requires females to wear a T-shirt, leotard, or sport bra underneath the jacket, whereas the pullover v-neck jacket does not.)