Kingdom (biology)

Because Cavalier-Smith allows paraphyly, the diagram below is an 'organization chart', not an 'ancestor chart', and does not represent an evolutionary tree.

The kingdom-level classification of life is still widely employed as a useful way of grouping organisms, notwithstanding some problems with this approach:

Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships depicted by Alastair Simpson