A jivanmukta or mukta is someone who, in the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, has gained and assimilated infinite and divine knowledge and power and gained complete self-knowledge and self-realisation and attained kaivalya or moksha (enlightenment and liberation), thus is liberated with an inner sense of freedom while living and not yet died. The state is the aim of moksha in Advaita Vedanta, Yoga and other schools of Hinduism, and it is referred to as jivanmukti (Liberation or Enlightenment).
Jivanmuktas are also called atma-jnani (self-realized) because they are knowers of their true self (atman) and the universal self, hence also called Brahma-Jnani. At the end of their lives, jivanmuktas destroy remaining karmas and attains Paramukti (final liberation) and becomes Paramukta. When a jivanmukta gives his insight to others and teach them about his realisation of the true nature of the ultimate reality (Brahman) and self (Atman) and takes the role of a guru to show the path of Moksha to others, then that jivanmukta is called an avadhuta and some avadhutas also achieve the title of Paramhamsa. When a rishi (seer sage) becomes a jivanmukta then that rishi is called Brahmarshi.
Some examples of jivanmuktas are Mahavira, Buddha, Adi Shankaracharya, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Kabirdas, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Ramakrishna Paramahansa, Ramana Maharshi, Vishwamitra and Vedantha Desikar. They realized Self (atman) i.e. God within their lifetime by travelling the path of pure Spirituality. They reached the stage of Enlightenment, Self-Realization, God-Realization, jivanmukti, Atma-jnana (all words are synonyms). They have negated the karma to zero, to reach the state of Jivan-Mukta. After gaining enlightenment, they retained their body, to disseminate the Jnana to masses. After leaving the body, they attained the Paramukti.
Jivanmukta (जीवन्मुक्त) is an adjective derived from a combination of Sanskrit noun जीव jiva, "life", and the past participle of the verb मुच् (much, or IAST muc), "to liberate". Monier-Williams gives the meaning "emancipated while still alive".
Jivanmukti (जीवन्मुक्ति), the corresponding abstract noun means, "liberation during life, liberation before death", or "emancipation while still alive". This is the only meaning given in authoritative dictionaries of classical Sanskrit, including Monier-Williams. Other translations, not found in standard dictionaries and therefore presumably of more modern date, include "self realization", "living liberation", "enlightenment", "liberated soul", or "self liberation".
The various texts and schools of Hinduism describe the jivanmukti state of existence as one of liberation and freedom reached within one's life. Some contrast jivanmukti with videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death). Jivanmukti is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual, claim these ancient texts of Hindu philosophy. For example, according to Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, the enlightened individual shows attributes such as:
Adi Shankara explains that nothing can induce one to act who has no desire of his own to satisfy. The supreme limit of vairagya ("detachment"), is the non-springing of vasanas in respect of enjoyable objects; the non-springing of the sense of the "I" (in things which are the ānatman) is the extreme limit of bodha ("awakening"), and the non-springing again of the modifications which have ceased is the extreme limit of Uparati ("abstinence"). The jivanmukta gains divine and infinite knowledge and has complete self-knowledge and Self-realization, a jivanmukta by reason of his ever being Brahman, is freed from awareness of external objects and no longer aware of any difference between the inner atman and Brahman and between Brahman and the world, he knows the he is same as Brahman and has an ever experiencing infinite consciousness. "Vijnatabrahmatattvasya yathapurvam na samsrtih" – "there is no saṃsāra as before for one who has known Brahman".
There are three kinds of prarabdha karma: Ichha ("personally desired"), Anichha ("without desire") and Parechha ("due to others' desire"). For a self realized person, a Jivanamukta, there is no Ichha-Prarabdha but the two others, Anichha and Parechha, remain, which even a jivanmukta has to undergo. According to the Advaita school, for those of wisdom Prarabdha is liquidated only by experience of its effects; Sancita ("accumulated karmas") and Agami ("future karmas") are destroyed in the fire of Jnana ("knowledge").
The term Paramukti is commonly used to refer to final liberation, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained Jivanmukti or Kaivalya during his or her lifetime. It implies the ultimate release of the soul (atman) from the Saṃsāra and karma and merger of the atman in Brahman, so when a jivanmukta dies he becomes a Paramukta. In the Hindu view, when an ordinary person dies and his physical body disintegrates, the person's unresolved karma causes his atman to pass on to a new birth; and thus the karmic inheritance is reborn in one of the many realms of samsara. However, when a person attains Jivanmukti, he is liberated from karmic rebirth. When such a person dies and his physical body disintegrates, his cycle of rebirthing ends and he become one with Brahman, then that person is said to have achieved Paramukti and became a Paramukta, so, a jivanmukta has a body while a Paramukta is bodyless and pure. When a jivanmukta attains the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi then he or she can become a Paramukta by his or her own will. A jivanmukta who has attained the state of nirvikalpa samadhi, will, at an appropriate time, consciously exit from their body and attains Paramukti. This act of consciously and intentionally leaving one's body is called as Mahasamadhi.
The Advaita school holds the view that the world appearance is owing to avidya (ignorance) that has the power to project i.e. to superimpose the unreal on the real (adhyasa), and also the power to conceal the real resulting in the delusion of the Jiva who experiences objects created by his mind and sees difference in this world, he sees difference between the ātman ("the individual self") and Brahman ("the supreme Self"). This delusion caused by ignorance is destroyed when ignorance itself is destroyed by knowledge. When all delusion is removed there remains no awareness of difference. He who sees no difference between Self and Brahman is said to be a jivanmukta. Jivanmukta experience infinite knowledge, infinite power and infinite bliss while alive and also after death i.e., after becoming Paramukta, while Videhmukta experiences these only after death. There are four stages for becoming a jivanmukta:
STAGE 1. The first stage is called sālokya — corresponding to the waking state of consciousness (jāgrata) — the realization that the entire vast universe of billions of galaxies and universes is all pervaded by the Divine Consciousness. (Viṣṇu means That which pervades the entire universe and everything in it.) It is the undifferentiated Ocean of Being. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from the idea that the world is separate and independent from us and is an ultimate source of abiding pleasure and joy.
STAGE 2. The second stage is sarūpya or sadhārmya — corresponding to the dreaming state of consciousness – realization that every being is interconnected and all "apparently" separate jivas are embodiments of the One Divine Consciousness. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from ahaṅkāra - the notion of self-identity and the notion of difference and the other, thus being able to cultivate empathy with all and universal compassion for all beings.
STAGE 3. The third stage samīpya — is intimacy with the Divine — corresponding to the unconscious dreamless state of consciousness – God-realization occurs when the nature of the saguṇa īśvara is cognized and one surrenders to Him/Her. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from all self-effort to achieve liberation, freedom from religion and its bondage and the relinquishing of all self-imposed burdens – achieving a state of equanimity, tranquility, abiding joy and peace.
STAGE 4. The final stage sāyujya — communion with, or unification with the Absolute Godhead — corresponding to the Turiya or inconceivable and inexpressible fourth state of consciousness – a merging with the Godhead bordering on complete identity. When this stage is achieved then the person becomes a complete jivanmukta and gets the absolute freedom from rebirth and suffering —this is the final stage of Brahma-nirvāna.
The Advaita philosophy rests on the premise that noumenally the Absolute alone exists, Nature, Souls and God are all merged in the Absolute; the Universe is one, that there is no difference within it, or without it; Brahman is alike throughout its structure, and the knowledge of any part of it is the knowledge of the whole (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad II.4.6-14), and, since all causation is ultimately due to Brahman, since everything beside Brahman is an appearance, the Atman is the only entity that exists and nothing else. All elements emanated from the Atman (Taittiriya Upanishad II.1) and all existence is based on Intellect (Aitareya Upanishad III.3). The universe created by Brahman from a part of itself is thrown out and re-absorbed by the Immutable Brahman (Mundaka Upanishad I.1.7). Therefore, the Jiva (the individual self) is non-different from Brahman (the supreme Self), and the Jiva, never bound, is ever liberated. Through Self-consciousness one gains the knowledge of existence and realizes Brahman.