# Isomorphism

In mathematics, an **isomorphism** is a structure-preserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are **isomorphic** if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος *isos* "equal", and μορφή *morphe* "form" or "shape".

The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are *the same up to an isomorphism*.^{[citation needed]}

An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a **canonical isomorphism** (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a universal property), or if the isomorphism is much more natural (in some sense) than other isomorphisms. For example, for every prime number p, all fields with p elements are canonically isomorphic, with a unique isomorphism. The isomorphism theorems provide canonical isomorphisms that are not unique.

The term *isomorphism* is mainly used for algebraic structures. In this case, mappings are called homomorphisms, and a homomorphism is an isomorphism if and only if it is bijective.

In various areas of mathematics, isomorphisms have received specialized names, depending on the type of structure under consideration. For example:

Category theory, which can be viewed as a formalization of the concept of mapping between structures, provides a language that may be used to unify the approach to these different aspects of the basic idea.

These structures are isomorphic under addition, under the following scheme:

For example, (1,1) + (1,0) = (0,1), which translates in the other system as 1 + 3 = 4.

If one object consists of a set *X* with a binary relation R and the other object consists of a set *Y* with a binary relation S then an isomorphism from *X* to *Y* is a bijective function ƒ: *X* → *Y* such that:^{[1]}

S is reflexive, irreflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, asymmetric, transitive, total, trichotomous, a partial order, total order, well-order, strict weak order, total preorder (weak order), an equivalence relation, or a relation with any other special properties, if and only if R is.

Such an isomorphism is called an *order isomorphism* or (less commonly) an *isotone isomorphism*.

In algebra, isomorphisms are defined for all algebraic structures. Some are more specifically studied; for example:

Just as the automorphisms of an algebraic structure form a group, the isomorphisms between two algebras sharing a common structure form a heap. Letting a particular isomorphism identify the two structures turns this heap into a group.

In mathematical analysis, the Laplace transform is an isomorphism mapping hard differential equations into easier algebraic equations.

In graph theory, an isomorphism between two graphs *G* and *H* is a bijective map *f* from the vertices of *G* to the vertices of *H* that preserves the "edge structure" in the sense that there is an edge from vertex *u* to vertex *v* in *G* if and only if there is an edge from ƒ(*u*) to ƒ(*v*) in *H*. See graph isomorphism.

In mathematical analysis, an isomorphism between two Hilbert spaces is a bijection preserving addition, scalar multiplication, and inner product.

In early theories of logical atomism, the formal relationship between facts and true propositions was theorized by Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein to be isomorphic. An example of this line of thinking can be found in Russell's *Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy*.

In cybernetics, the good regulator or Conant–Ashby theorem is stated "Every good regulator of a system must be a model of that system". Whether regulated or self-regulating, an isomorphism is required between the regulator and processing parts of the system.

In category theory, given a category *C*, an isomorphism is a morphism *f*: *a* → *b* that has an inverse morphism *g*: *b* → *a*, that is, *fg* = 1_{b} and *gf* = 1_{a}. For example, a bijective linear map is an isomorphism between vector spaces, and a bijective continuous function whose inverse is also continuous is an isomorphism between topological spaces, called a homeomorphism.

Two categories C and D are isomorphic if there exist functors *F* : *C* → *D* and *G* : *D* → *C* which are mutually inverse to each other, that is, *FG* = 1_{D} (the identity functor on D) and *GF* = 1_{C} (the identity functor on D).

In a concrete category (that is, a category whose objects are sets (perhaps with extra structure) and whose morphisms are structure-preserving functions), such as the category of topological spaces or categories of algebraic objects (like the category of groups, the category of rings, and the category of modules), an isomorphism must be bijective on the underlying sets. In algebraic categories (specifically, categories of varieties in the sense of universal algebra), an isomorphism is the same as a homomorphism which is bijective on underlying sets. However, there are concrete categories in which bijective morphisms are not necessarily isomorphisms (such as the category of topological spaces).

In certain areas of mathematics, notably category theory, it is valuable to distinguish between *equality* on the one hand and *isomorphism* on the other.^{[2]} Equality is when two objects are exactly the same, and everything that is true about one object is true about the other, while an isomorphism implies everything that is true about a designated part of one object's structure is true about the other's. For example, the sets

and no one isomorphism is intrinsically better than any other.^{[note 1]}^{[note 2]} On this view and in this sense, these two sets are not equal because one cannot consider them *identical*: one can choose an isomorphism between them, but that is a weaker claim than identity—and valid only in the context of the chosen isomorphism.

Sometimes the isomorphisms can seem obvious and compelling, but are still not equalities. As a simple example, the genealogical relationships among Joe, John, and Bobby Kennedy are, in a real sense, the same as those among the American football quarterbacks in the Manning family: Archie, Peyton, and Eli. The father-son pairings and the elder-brother-younger-brother pairings correspond perfectly. That similarity between the two family structures illustrates the origin of the word *isomorphism* (Greek *iso*-, "same", and -*morph*, "form" or "shape"). But because the Kennedys are not the same people as the Mannings, the two genealogical structures are merely isomorphic and not equal.

However, there is a case where the distinction between natural isomorphism and equality is usually not made. That is for the objects that may be characterized by a universal property. In fact, there is a unique isomorphism, necessarily natural, between two objects sharing the same universal property. A typical example is the set of real numbers, which may be defined through infinite decimal expansion, infinite binary expansion, Cauchy sequences, Dedekind cuts and many other ways. Formally, these constructions define different objects which are all solutions with the same universal property. As these objects have exactly the same properties, one may forget the method of construction and consider them as equal. This is what everybody does when referring to "*the* set of the real numbers". The same occurs with quotient spaces: they are commonly constructed as sets of equivalence classes. However, referring to a set of sets may be counterintuitive, and so quotient spaces are commonly considered as a pair of a set of undetermined objects, often called "points", and a surjective map onto this set.

If one wishes to distinguish between an arbitrary isomorphism (one that depends on a choice) and a natural isomorphism (one that can be done consistently), one may write ≈ for an unnatural isomorphism and ≅ for a natural isomorphism, as in *V* ≈ *V** and *V* ≅ *V***.
This convention is not universally followed, and authors who wish to distinguish between unnatural isomorphisms and natural isomorphisms will generally explicitly state the distinction.

Generally, saying that two objects are *equal* is reserved for when there is a notion of a larger (ambient) space that these objects live in. Most often, one speaks of equality of two subsets of a given set (as in the integer set example above), but not of two objects abstractly presented. For example, the 2-dimensional unit sphere in 3-dimensional space

are three different descriptions for a mathematical object, all of which are isomorphic, but not *equal* because they are not all subsets of a single space: the first is a subset of **R**^{3}, the second is **C** ≅ **R**^{2}^{[note 3]} plus an additional point, and the third is a subquotient of **C**^{2}.

In the context of category theory, objects are usually at most isomorphic—indeed, a motivation for the development of category theory was showing that different constructions in homology theory yielded equivalent (isomorphic) groups. Given maps between two objects *X* and *Y*, however, one asks if they are equal or not (they are both elements of the set Hom(*X*, *Y*), hence equality is the proper relationship), particularly in commutative diagrams.