Indo-Aryan languages

Branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family

The following table of proposals is expanded from Masica (1991). Note that the table only lists some modern Indo-Aryan languages.

The following languages are related to each other, but are otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:

Research conducted by nineteenth-century scholars Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) demonstrated that the Romani language is most aptly designated as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), as opposed to Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA); establishing that proto-Romani speakers could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, coupled with its reduction to a two-way nominative-oblique case system. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation, due to the fact that Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally employed three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this aspect today.

In languages that have lost breathy-voice, the contrast has often been replaced with tone.

Vowel typologies are varied across Indo-Aryan due to diachronic mergers and (in some cases) splits, as well as different accounts by linguists for even the widely-spoken languages. Vowel systems per Masica (1991:108–113) are listed below.