IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
The numbers for that type of side chain will be grouped in ascending order and written before the name of the side-chain. If there are two side-chains with the same alpha carbon, the number will be written twice. Example: 2,2,3-trimethyl- . If there are both double bonds and triple bonds, "en" (double bond) is written before "yne" (triple bond). When the main functional group is a terminal functional group (a group which can exist only at the end of a chain, like formyl and carboxyl groups), there is no need to number it.
where each "#" represents a number. The group secondary functional groups and side chains may not look the same as shown here, as the side chains and secondary functional groups are arranged alphabetically. The di- and tri- have been used just to show their usage. (di- after #,#, tri- after #,#,#, etc.)
For simplicity, here is an image of the same molecule, where the hydrogens in the parent chain are removed and the carbons are shown by their numbers:
Aldehydes (R-CHO) take the suffix "-al". If other functional groups are present, the chain is numbered such that the aldehyde carbon is in the "1" position, unless functional groups of higher precedence are present.
Acyl groups are named by stripping the -ic acid of the corresponding carboxylic acid and replacing it with -yl. For Example, CH3CO-R is called Ethanoyl-R.
Simply add the name of the attached halide to the end of the acyl group. For example, CH3COCl is ethanoyl chloride.
The IUPAC nomenclature scheme becomes rapidly more elaborate for more complex cyclic structures, with notation for compounds containing conjoined rings, and many common names such as phenol being accepted as base names for compounds derived from them.
When compounds contain more than one functional group, the order of precedence determines which groups are named with prefix or suffix forms. The table below shows common groups in decreasing order of precedence. The highest-precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form (-en and -yn) and are used with other suffixes.*Note: These suffixes, in which the carbon atom is counted as part of the preceding chain, are the most commonly used. See individual functional group articles for more details.
Common nomenclature uses the older names for some organic compounds instead of using the prefixes for the carbon skeleton above. The pattern can be seen below.
Hydron is a generic term for hydrogen cation; protons, deuterons and tritons are all hydrons. The hydrons are not found in heavier isotopes, however.
The above cations except for methanium are not, strictly speaking, organic, since they do not contain carbon. However, many organic cations are obtained by substituting another element or some functional group for a hydrogen.