English phonology

The following table shows typical examples of the occurrence of the above consonant phonemes in words, using minimal pairs where possible.

For a table that shows the pronunciations of these vowels in a wider range of English dialects, see IPA chart for English dialects.

Listed here are some of the significant cases of allophony of vowels found within standard English dialects.

For stress as a prosodic feature (emphasis of particular words within utterances), see § Prosodic stress below.

The prosodic features of English – stress, rhythm, and intonation – can be described as follows.

Prosodic stress is extra stress given to words or syllables when they appear in certain positions in an utterance, or when they receive special emphasis.

Example of phonological contrast involving placement of intonation unit boundaries (boundary marked by comma):

Example of phonological contrast involving placement of tonic syllable (marked by capital letters):

Example of phonological contrast (British English) involving choice of tone (\ = falling tone, \/ = fall-rise tone)

However, there are exceptions in the form of comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, where Rule 2 must be prevented from applying. The ending -ish is another possible exception.