In Ayurveda, a dosha (Sanskrit: दोषः, IAST: doṣa) is one of three substances that are believed to be present in a person's body. Beginning with twentieth-century literature, there was an idea called "The Three-Dosha Theory" (Sanskrit: त्रिदोषोपदेशः, tridoṣa-upadeśaḥ). Authoritative Ayurvedic treatises describe how the quantity and quality of these three substances fluctuate in the body according to the seasons, time of day, diet, and several other factors. While Ayurvedic doshas are a similar concept to Latin Humorism, it is a distinct system.
One important concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the belief that health exists when there is an equal amount of the three fundamental bodily bio-elements or doshas called wind, bile and phlegm (Sanskrit वात, पित्त, कफ; IAST: vāta, pitta, kapha).
The symbols are associated to the five elements of classical Indian philosophy.
So at last there are three primary doshit states: 1-Balanced - In this state all the three doshas are in equal proportion or are balanced. 2-Increased - In this state one particular dosha is in excess. 3-Decreased - It is also called deflected state as in this state one of the three following dosha is in very less or no presence.
Doshas are considered to be forces that create the physical body. They would determine conditions of growth, aging, health and disease. Typically, one of the three doshas predominates and is associated with a constitution or mind-body type. By evaluating individual habits, emotional responses, and body type, practitioners adapt their yoga practice accordingly. These are also used to diagnose Ayurvedic treatments focused on alleviating any doshic excesses (illness) using herbs, lifestyle changes and practices such as pranayama, meditation and yoga postures.
Symptoms are commonly associated with disorders in dosha, considered to throw the system off balance. For example, it is believed that with excess vata, there can be mental, nervous and digestive disorders, including low energy and weakening of all body tissues. Similarly, excess pitta is considered to mean that toxic blood gives rise to inflammation and infection. Excess of kapha is associated with an increase in mucus, weight, edema, and lung disease, etc. The key to managing all doshas is taking care of vata, that is taught to be the origin of the other two.
Yoga is a set of disciplines, some that aim to balance and transform energies of the psyche. At the roots of vata, pitta and kapha are believed to consist of its subtle counterparts called prana, tejas and ojas. Unlike the doshas, which in excess create diseases, this is believed to promote health, creativity and well-being.
• Ojas–the ultimate energy reserve of the body derived from kapha (water)
Ultimately, Ayurveda seeks to reduce disease, particularly those that are chronic, and increase positive health in the body and mind via these three vital essences that aid in renewal and transformation. Increased prana is associated with enthusiasm, adaptability and creativity, all of which are considered necessary when pursuing a spiritual path in yoga and to enable one to perform. Tejas is claimed to provide courage, fearlessness and insight and to be important when making decisions. Lastly, ojas is considered to create peace, confidence and patience to maintain consistent development and sustain continued effort. Eventually, the most important element to develop is ojas, believed to engender physical and psychological endurance. Aims to achieve this include Ayurvedic diet, tonic herbs, control of the senses, and devotion.