Dolce Stil Novo
Dolce Stil Novo (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdoltʃe ˌstil ˈnɔːvo]; Italian for "sweet new style", modern Italian stile nuovo), or stilnovismo [stilnoˈvizmo], is the name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy. Influenced by the Sicilian School and Tuscan poetry, its main theme is Love (Amore). Gentilezza (Noblemindedness) and Amore are indeed topoi in the major works of the period. The name Dolce Stil Novo was used for the first time by Dante Alighieri (Canto 24, Purgatorio). When he arrives in Purgatory he meets Bonagiunta Orbicciani, a 13th-century Italian poet, who tells Dante that Dante himself, Guido Guinizelli, and Guido Cavalcanti had been able to create a new genre: a stil novo. Precursors to the dolce stil novo are found in the Provençal works of the troubadours, such as the Genoese Lanfranc Cigala. The artists of the stil novo are called stilnovisti.
Compared to its precursors, the poetry of the Dolce Stil Novo is regarded as superior in quality and more intelligent: it is a more refined poetry with regular use of metaphors and symbolism, as well as subtle double meanings. Poetry of this movement also often includes profound introspection. Many literary critics have argued that introspection in Italian literary works was first introduced by the Stil Novo poets, and later developed by Francesco Petrarca.
Poetry from this school is also marked by adoration of the human form, incorporating vivid descriptions of female beauty and frequently comparing the desired woman to a creature from paradise. The woman is described as an 'angel' or as 'a bridge to God'. Rather than being material in nature, the 'Love' of the Dolce Stil Novo is a sort of 'Divine Love'.
The two main concepts (introspection and love) are thus brought together as the poet enters his interior world to express his most inner feelings which are caused by an excessively divine female beauty.
The first expression of this style of writing is credited to Guido Guinizelli and his poem Al cor gentil rempaira sempre amore, whereas the major exponent of this school of poetry was Dante Alighieri, who is most famous for his Divina Commedia.
The importance of the Dolce Stil Novo lies in the fact that apart from being the manifestation of the first true literary tradition in Italy, it ennobled the Tuscan vernacular, which was destined to become the Italian national language.
The Stilnovisti influenced the later Spanish poet Melchior de Gualbes.