Digital electronics

A digital signal has two or more distinguishable waveforms, in this example, high voltage and low voltages, each of which can be mapped onto a digit.

With computer-controlled digital systems, new functions can be added through software revision and no hardware changes are needed. Often this can be done outside of the factory by updating the product's software. This way, the product's design errors can be corrected even after the product is in a customer's hands.

Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones. The noise immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without degradation. In an analog system, noise from aging and wear degrade the information stored. In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly. Even when more significant noise is present, the use of redundancy permits the recovery of the original data provided too many errors do not occur.

Representations are crucial to an engineer's design of digital circuits. To choose representations, engineers consider different types of digital systems.

For logic simulation, digital circuit representations have digital file formats that can be processed by computer programs.

A 4-bit ring counter using D-type flip flops is an example of synchronous logic. Each device is connected to the clock signal, and update together.

The usual way to implement a synchronous sequential state machine is to divide it into a piece of combinational logic and a set of flip flops called a state register. The state register represents the state as a binary number. The combinational logic produces the binary representation for the next state. On each clock cycle, the state register captures the feedback generated from the previous state of the combinational logic and feeds it back as an unchanging input to the combinational part of the state machine. The clock rate is limited by the most time-consuming logic calculation in the combinational logic.

Asynchronous logic components can be hard to design because all possible states, in all possible timings must be considered. The usual method is to construct a table of the minimum and maximum time that each such state can exist and then adjust the circuit to minimize the number of such states. The designer must force the circuit to periodically wait for all of its parts to enter a compatible state (this is called "self-resynchronization"). Without careful design, it is easy to accidentally produce asynchronous logic that is unstable—that is—real electronics will have unpredictable results because of the cumulative delays caused by small variations in the values of the electronic components.

Digital circuits are made from analog components. The design must assure that the analog nature of the components doesn't dominate the desired digital behavior. Digital systems must manage noise and timing margins, parasitic inductances and capacitances.

Since digital circuits are made from analog components, digital circuits calculate more slowly than low-precision analog circuits that use a similar amount of space and power. However, the digital circuit will calculate more repeatably, because of its high noise immunity.

Much of the effort of designing large logic machines has been automated through the application of electronic design automation (EDA).

Parts of tool flows are debugged by verifying the outputs of simulated logic against expected inputs. The test tools take computer files with sets of inputs and outputs and highlight discrepancies between the simulated behavior and the expected behavior. Once the input data is believed to be correct, the design itself must still be verified for correctness. Some tool flows verify designs by first producing a design, then scanning the design to produce compatible input data for the tool flow. If the scanned data matches the input data, then the tool flow has probably not introduced errors.

Once a design exists, and is verified and testable, it often needs to be processed to be manufacturable as well. Modern integrated circuits have features smaller than the wavelength of the light used to expose the photoresist. Software that are designed for manufacturability add interference patterns to the exposure masks to eliminate open-circuits, and enhance the masks' contrast.

A large logic machine (say, with more than a hundred logical variables) can have an astronomical number of possible states. Obviously, factory testing every state of such a machine is unfeasible, for even if testing each state only took a microsecond, there are more possible states than there are microseconds since the universe began!

In a board-test environment, serial to parallel testing has been formalized as the JTAG standard.

Several factors determine the practicality of a system of digital logic: cost, reliability, fan-out and speed. Engineers have explored numerous electronic devices to figure out a favourable combination of these factors.

The cost of a logic gate is crucial, primarily because very many gates are needed to build a computer or other advanced digital system. Systems with more gates are more capable. Since the bulk of a digital computer is simply an interconnected network of logic gates, the overall cost of building a computer correlates strongly with the cost of a logic gate. In the 1930s, the earliest digital logic systems were constructed from telephone relays because these were inexpensive and relatively reliable.

With the rise of integrated circuits, reducing the absolute number of chips used represented another way to save costs. The goal of a designer is not just to make the simplest circuit, but to keep the component count down. Sometimes this results in more complicated designs with respect to the underlying digital logic but nevertheless reduces the number of components, board size, and even power consumption.

Another major motive for reducing component count on printed circuit boards is to reduce the manufacturing defect rate due to failed soldered connections and increase reliability. Defect and failure rates tend to increase along with the total number of component pins.

Digital machines often have millions of logic gates. Most digital machines designers optimize to reduce their cost. The result is that often, the failure of a single logic gate will cause a digital machine to fail. It is possible to design machines to be more reliable by using redundant logic which will not malfunction as a result of the failure of any single gate, but this necessarily entails using more components, which raises the cost and also usually increases the weight of the machine and may increase the power it consumes.

Digital design started with relay logic which is relatively inexpensive and reliable, but slow. Occasionally a mechanical failure would occur. Fan-outs were typically about 10, limited by the resistance of the coils and arcing on the contacts from high voltages.

Later, vacuum tubes were used. These were very fast, but generated heat, and were unreliable because the filaments would burn out. Fan-outs were typically 5 to 7, limited by the heating from the tubes' current. In the 1950s, special computer tubes were developed with filaments that omitted volatile elements like silicon. These ran for hundreds of thousands of hours.

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) was a great improvement over these. In early devices, fan-out improved to 10, and later variations reliably achieved 20. TTL was also fast, with some variations achieving switching times as low as 20 ns. TTL is still used in some designs.