# Cubic honeycomb

A geometric honeycomb is a *space-filling* of polyhedral or higher-dimensional *cells*, so that there are no gaps. It is an example of the more general mathematical *tiling* or *tessellation* in any number of dimensions.

Honeycombs are usually constructed in ordinary Euclidean ("flat") space, like the convex uniform honeycombs. They may also be constructed in non-Euclidean spaces, such as hyperbolic uniform honeycombs. Any finite uniform polytope can be projected to its circumsphere to form a uniform honeycomb in spherical space.

It is one of 28 uniform honeycombs using convex uniform polyhedral cells.

Simple cubic lattices can be distorted into lower symmetries, represented by lower crystal systems:

There is a large number of uniform colorings, derived from different symmetries. These include:

The *cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements. The highest (hexagonal) symmetry form projects into a triangular tiling. A square symmetry projection forms a square tiling.

It is in a sequence of polychora and honeycomb with octahedral vertex figures.

It in a sequence of regular polytopes and honeycombs with cubic cells.

The cubic honeycomb has a lower symmetry as a runcinated cubic honeycomb, with two sizes of cubes. A double symmetry construction can be constructed by placing a small cube into each large cube, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with cubes, square prisms, and rectangular trapezoprisms (a cube with *D _{2d}* symmetry). Its vertex figure is a triangular pyramid with its lateral faces augmented by tetrahedra.

The resulting honeycomb can be alternated to produce another nonuniform honeycomb with regular tetrahedra, two kinds of tetragonal disphenoids, triangular pyramids, and sphenoids. Its vertex figure has *C _{3v}* symmetry and has 26 triangular faces, 39 edges, and 15 vertices.

The [4,3,4], , Coxeter group generates 15 permutations of uniform tessellations, 9 with distinct geometry including the alternated cubic honeycomb. The expanded cubic honeycomb (also known as the runcinated cubic honeycomb) is geometrically identical to the cubic honeycomb.

The [4,3^{1,1}], , Coxeter group generates 9 permutations of uniform tessellations, 4 with distinct geometry including the alternated cubic honeycomb.

The **rectified cubic honeycomb** or **rectified cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of octahedra and cuboctahedra in a ratio of 1:1, with a square prism vertex figure.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **cuboctahedrille**, and its dual an oblate octahedrille.

The *rectified cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

There are four uniform colorings for the cells of this honeycomb with reflective symmetry, listed by their Coxeter group, and Wythoff construction name, and the Coxeter diagram below.

A double symmetry construction can be made by placing octahedra on the cuboctahedra, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with two kinds of octahedra (regular octahedra and triangular antiprisms). The vertex figure is a square bifrustum. The dual is composed of elongated square bipyramids.

The **truncated cubic honeycomb** or **truncated cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of truncated cubes and octahedra in a ratio of 1:1, with an isosceles square pyramid vertex figure.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **truncated cubille**, and its dual pyramidille.

The *truncated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

There is a second uniform coloring by reflectional symmetry of the Coxeter groups, the second seen with alternately colored truncated cubic cells.

A double symmetry construction can be made by placing octahedra on the truncated cubes, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with two kinds of octahedra (regular octahedra and triangular antiprisms) and two kinds of tetrahedra (tetragonal disphenoids and digonal disphenoids). The vertex figure is an octakis square cupola.

The **bitruncated cubic honeycomb** is a space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space made up of truncated octahedra (or, equivalently, bitruncated cubes). It has four truncated octahedra around each vertex, in a tetragonal disphenoid vertex figure. Being composed entirely of truncated octahedra, it is cell-transitive. It is also edge-transitive, with 2 hexagons and one square on each edge, and vertex-transitive. It is one of 28 uniform honeycombs.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **truncated octahedrille** in his Architectonic and catoptric tessellation list, with its dual called an *oblate tetrahedrille*, also called a disphenoid tetrahedral honeycomb. Although a regular tetrahedron can not tessellate space alone, this dual has identical disphenoid tetrahedron cells with isosceles triangle faces.

The *bitruncated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements. The highest (hexagonal) symmetry form projects into a nonuniform rhombitrihexagonal tiling. A square symmetry projection forms two overlapping truncated square tiling, which combine together as a chamfered square tiling.

Nonuniform variants with [4,3,4] symmetry and two types of truncated octahedra can be doubled by placing the two types of truncated octahedra to produce a nonuniform honeycomb with truncated octahedra and hexagonal prisms (as ditrigonal trapezoprisms). Its vertex figure is a *C _{2v}*-symmetric triangular bipyramid.

This honeycomb can then be alternated to produce another nonuniform honeycomb with pyritohedral icosahedra, octahedra (as triangular antiprisms), and tetrahedra (as sphenoids). Its vertex figure has *C _{2v}* symmetry and consists of 2 pentagons, 4 rectangles, 4 isosceles triangles (divided into two sets of 2), and 4 scalene triangles.

The **alternated bitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **bisnub cubic honeycomb** is non-uniform, with the highest symmetry construction reflecting an alternation of the uniform bitruncated cubic honeycomb. A lower-symmetry construction involves regular icosahedra paired with golden icosahedra (with 8 equilateral triangles paired with 12 golden triangles). There are three constructions from three related Coxeter diagrams: , , and . These have symmetry [4,3^{+},4], [4,(3^{1,1})^{+}] and [3^{[4]}]^{+} respectively. The first and last symmetry can be doubled as [[4,3^{+},4]] and [[3^{[4]}]]^{+}.

This honeycomb is represented in the boron atoms of the α-rhombihedral crystal. The centers of the icosahedra are located at the fcc positions of the lattice.^{[3]}

The **cantellated cubic honeycomb** or **cantellated cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of rhombicuboctahedra, cuboctahedra, and cubes in a ratio of 1:1:3, with a wedge vertex figure.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **2-RCO-trille**, and its dual quarter oblate octahedrille.

The *cantellated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

There is a second uniform colorings by reflectional symmetry of the Coxeter groups, the second seen with alternately colored rhombicuboctahedral cells.

A double symmetry construction can be made by placing cuboctahedra on the rhombicuboctahedra, which results in the rectified cubic honeycomb, by taking the triangular antiprism gaps as regular octahedra, square antiprism pairs and zero-height tetragonal disphenoids as components of the cuboctahedron. Other variants result in cuboctahedra, square antiprisms, octahedra (as triangular antipodiums), and tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids), with a vertex figure topologically equivalent to a cube with a triangular prism attached to one of its square faces.

The dual of the *cantellated cubic honeycomb* is called a **quarter oblate octahedrille**, a catoptric tessellation with Coxeter diagram , containing faces from two of four hyperplanes of the cubic [4,3,4] fundamental domain.

It has irregular triangle bipyramid cells which can be seen as 1/12 of a cube, made from the cube center, 2 face centers, and 2 vertices.

The **cantitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **cantitruncated cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space, made up of truncated cuboctahedra, truncated octahedra, and cubes in a ratio of 1:1:3, with a mirrored sphenoid vertex figure.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **n-tCO-trille**, and its dual triangular pyramidille.

The *cantitruncated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

Cells can be shown in two different symmetries. The linear Coxeter diagram form can be drawn with one color for each cell type. The bifurcating diagram form can be drawn with two types (colors) of truncated cuboctahedron cells alternating.

A cell can be as 1/24 of a translational cube with vertices positioned: taking two corner, ne face center, and the cube center. The edge colors and labels specify how many cells exist around the edge.

It is related to a skew apeirohedron with vertex configuration 4.4.6.6, with the octagons and some of the squares removed. It can be seen as constructed by augmenting truncated cuboctahedral cells, or by augmenting alternated truncated octahedra and cubes.

A double symmetry construction can be made by placing truncated octahedra on the truncated cuboctahedra, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with truncated octahedra, hexagonal prisms (as ditrigonal trapezoprisms), cubes (as square prisms), triangular prisms (as *C _{2v}*-symmetric wedges), and tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids). Its vertex figure is topologically equivalent to the octahedron.

The **alternated cantitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **snub rectified cubic honeycomb** contains three types of cells: snub cubes, icosahedra (with *T _{h}* symmetry), tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids), and new tetrahedral cells created at the gaps.

Although it is not uniform, constructionally it can be given as Coxeter diagrams or .

Despite being non-uniform, there is a near-miss version with two edge lengths shown below, one of which is around 4.3% greater than the other. The snub cubes in this case are uniform, but the rest of the cells are not.

The **orthosnub cubic honeycomb** is constructed by snubbing the truncated octahedra in a way that leaves only rectangles from the cubes (square prisms). It is not uniform but it can be represented as Coxeter diagram . It has rhombicuboctahedra (with *T _{h}* symmetry), icosahedra (with

*T*symmetry), and triangular prisms (as

_{h}*C*-symmetry wedges) filling the gaps.

_{2v}A double symmetry construction can be made by placing icosahedra on the rhombicuboctahedra, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with icosahedra, octahedra (as triangular antiprisms), triangular prisms (as *C _{2v}*-symmetric wedges), and square pyramids.

The **runcitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **runcitruncated cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of rhombicuboctahedra, truncated cubes, octagonal prisms, and cubes in a ratio of 1:1:3:3, with an isosceles-trapezoidal pyramid vertex figure.

Its name is derived from its Coxeter diagram, with three ringed nodes representing 3 active mirrors in the Wythoff construction from its relation to the regular cubic honeycomb.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **1-RCO-trille**, and its dual square quarter pyramidille.

The *runcitruncated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

Two related uniform skew apeirohedrons exists with the same vertex arrangement, seen as boundary cells from a subset of cells. One has triangles and squares, and the other triangles, squares, and octagons.

Cells are irregular pyramids and can be seen as 1/24 of a cube, using one corner, one mid-edge point, two face centers, and the cube center.

A double symmetry construction can be made by placing rhombicuboctahedra on the truncated cubes, resulting in a nonuniform honeycomb with rhombicuboctahedra, octahedra (as triangular antiprisms), cubes (as square prisms), two kinds of triangular prisms (both *C _{2v}*-symmetric wedges), and tetrahedra (as digonal disphenoids). Its vertex figure is topologically equivalent to the augmented triangular prism.

The **omnitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **omnitruncated cubic cellulation** is a uniform space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of truncated cuboctahedra and octagonal prisms in a ratio of 1:3, with a phyllic disphenoid vertex figure.

John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a **b-tCO-trille**, and its dual eighth pyramidille.

The *omnitruncated cubic honeycomb* can be orthogonally projected into the euclidean plane with various symmetry arrangements.

Cells can be shown in two different symmetries. The Coxeter diagram form has two colors of truncated cuboctahedra and octagonal prisms. The symmetry can be doubled by relating the first and last branches of the Coxeter diagram, which can be shown with one color for all the truncated cuboctahedral and octagonal prism cells.

Two related uniform skew apeirohedron exist with the same vertex arrangement. The first has octagons removed, and vertex configuration 4.4.4.6. It can be seen as truncated cuboctahedra and octagonal prisms augmented together. The second can be seen as augmented octagonal prisms, vertex configuration 4.8.4.8.

Nonuniform variants with [4,3,4] symmetry and two types of truncated cuboctahedra can be doubled by placing the two types of truncated cuboctahedra on each other to produce a nonuniform honeycomb with truncated cuboctahedra, octagonal prisms, hexagonal prisms (as ditrigonal trapezoprisms), and two kinds of cubes (as rectangular trapezoprisms and their *C _{2v}*-symmetric variants). Its vertex figure is an irregular triangular bipyramid.

This honeycomb can then be alternated to produce another nonuniform honeycomb with snub cubes, square antiprisms, octahedra (as triangular antiprisms), and three kinds of tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids, phyllic disphenoids, and irregular tetrahedra).

An **alternated omnitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **omnisnub cubic honeycomb** can be constructed by alternation of the omnitruncated cubic honeycomb, although it can not be made uniform, but it can be given Coxeter diagram: and has symmetry [[4,3,4]]^{+}. It makes snub cubes from the truncated cuboctahedra, square antiprisms from the octagonal prisms, and creates new tetrahedral cells from the gaps.

A **dual alternated omnitruncated cubic honeycomb** is a space-filling honeycomb constructed as the dual of the alternated omnitruncated cubic honeycomb.

24 cells fit around a vertex, making a chiral octahedral symmetry that can be stacked in all 3-dimensions:

Individual cells have 2-fold rotational symmetry. In 2D orthogonal projection, this looks like a mirror symmetry.

The **bialternatosnub cubic honeycomb** or **runcic cantitruncated cubic honeycomb** or **runcic cantitruncated cubic cellulation** is constructed by removing alternating long rectangles from the octagons and is not uniform, but it can be represented as Coxeter diagram . It has rhombicuboctahedra (with *T _{h}* symmetry), snub cubes, two kinds of cubes: square prisms and rectangular trapezoprisms (topologically equivalent to a cube but with

*D*symmetry), and triangular prisms (as

_{2d}*C*-symmetry wedges) filling the gaps.

_{2v}The **biorthosnub cubic honeycomb** is constructed by removing alternating long rectangles from the octagons orthogonally and is not uniform, but it can be represented as Coxeter diagram . It has rhombicuboctahedra (with *T _{h}* symmetry) and two kinds of cubes: square prisms and rectangular trapezoprisms (topologically equivalent to a cube but with

*D*symmetry).

_{2d}The **truncated square prismatic honeycomb** or **tomo-square prismatic cellulation** is a space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of octagonal prisms and cubes in a ratio of 1:1.

It is constructed from a truncated square tiling extruded into prisms.

The **snub square prismatic honeycomb** or **simo-square prismatic cellulation** is a space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of cubes and triangular prisms in a ratio of 1:2.

A **snub square antiprismatic honeycomb** can be constructed by alternation of the truncated square prismatic honeycomb, although it can not be made uniform, but it can be given Coxeter diagram: and has symmetry [4,4,2,∞]^{+}. It makes square antiprisms from the octagonal prisms, tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids) from the cubes, and two tetrahedra from the triangular bipyramids.