Depending on the direction and order of the coordinate axes, the three-dimensional system may be a right-handed or a left-handed system. This is one of many coordinate systems.
With every bijection from the space to itself two coordinate transformations can be associated:
For example, in 1D, if the mapping is a translation of 3 to the right, the first moves the origin from 0 to 3, so that the coordinate of each point becomes 3 less, while the second moves the origin from 0 to −3, so that the coordinate of each point becomes 3 more.
The Earth as a whole is one of the most common geometric spaces requiring the precise measurement of location, and thus coordinate systems. Starting with the Greeks of the Hellenistic period, a variety of coordinate systems have been developed based on the types above, including: