# Completeness (order theory)

In the mathematical area of order theory, **completeness properties** assert the existence of certain infima or suprema of a given partially ordered set (poset). The most familiar example is the completeness of the real numbers. A special use of the term refers to complete partial orders or complete lattices. However, many other interesting notions of completeness exist.

All completeness properties are described along a similar scheme: one describes a certain class of subsets of a partially ordered set that are required to have a supremum or required to have an infimum. Hence every completeness property has its dual, obtained by inverting the order-dependent definitions in the given statement. Some of the notions are usually not dualized while others may be self-dual (i.e. equivalent to their dual statements).

The easiest example of a supremum is the empty one, i.e. the supremum of the empty set. By definition, this is the least element among all elements that are greater than each member of the empty set. But this is just the least element of the whole poset, if it has one, since the empty subset of a poset *P* is conventionally considered to be both bounded from above and from below, with every element of *P* being both an upper and lower bound of the empty subset. Other common names for the least element are bottom and zero (0). The dual notion, the empty lower bound, is the greatest element, top, or unit (1).

Posets that have a bottom are sometimes called pointed, while posets with a top are called unital or topped. An order that has both a least and a greatest element is bounded. However, this should not be confused with the notion of *bounded completeness* given below.

A poset in which only non-empty finite suprema are known to exist is therefore called a join-semilattice. The dual notion is meet-semilattice.

The strongest form of completeness is the existence of all suprema and all infima. The posets with this property are the complete lattices. However, using the given order, one can restrict to further classes of (possibly infinite) subsets, that do not yield this strong completeness at once.

If all directed subsets of a poset have a supremum, then the order is a directed-complete partial order (dcpo). These are especially important in domain theory. The seldom-considered dual notion to a dcpo is the filtered-complete poset. Dcpos with a least element ("pointed dcpos") are one of the possible meanings of the phrase complete partial order (cpo).

If every subset that has *some* upper bound has also a least upper bound, then the respective poset is called bounded complete. The term is used widely with this definition that focuses on suprema and there is no common name for the dual property. However, bounded completeness can be expressed in terms of other completeness conditions that are easily dualized (see below). Although concepts with the names "complete" and "bounded" were already defined, confusion is unlikely to occur since one would rarely speak of a "bounded complete poset" when meaning a "bounded cpo" (which is just a "cpo with greatest element"). Likewise, "bounded complete lattice" is almost unambiguous, since one would not state the boundedness property for complete lattices, where it is implied anyway. Also note that the empty set usually has upper bounds (if the poset is non-empty) and thus a bounded-complete poset has a least element.

One may also consider the subsets of a poset which are totally ordered, i.e. the chains. If all chains have a supremum, the order is called chain complete. Again, this concept is rarely needed in the dual form.

It was already observed that binary meets/joins yield all non-empty finite meets/joins. Likewise, many other (combinations) of the above conditions are equivalent.

Another interesting way to characterize completeness properties is provided through the concept of (monotone) Galois connections, i.e. adjunctions between partial orders. In fact this approach offers additional insights both into the nature of many completeness properties and into the importance of Galois connections for order theory. The general observation on which this reformulation of completeness is based is that the construction of certain suprema or infima provides left or right adjoint parts of suitable Galois connections.

The considerations in this section suggest a reformulation of (parts of) order theory in terms of category theory, where properties are usually expressed by referring to the relationships (morphisms, more specifically: adjunctions) between objects, instead of considering their internal structure. For more detailed considerations of this relationship see the article on the categorical formulation of order theory.