Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.

Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly.[1] Maurice René Fréchet was the first to use the term "Banach space" and Banach in turn then coined the term "Fréchet space."[2] Banach spaces originally grew out of the study of function spaces by Hilbert, Fréchet, and Riesz earlier in the century. Banach spaces play a central role in functional analysis. In other areas of analysis, the spaces under study are often Banach spaces.

Every normed space can be isometrically embedded onto a dense vector subspace of some Banach space, where this Banach space is called a completion of the normed space. This Hausdorff completion is unique up to isometric isomorphism.

The main tool for proving the existence of continuous linear functionals is the Hahn–Banach theorem.

The Hahn–Banach separation theorem states that two disjoint non-empty convex sets in a real Banach space, one of them open, can be separated by a closed affine hyperplane. The open convex set lies strictly on one side of the hyperplane, the second convex set lies on the other side but may touch the hyperplane.[24]

Here are the main general results about Banach spaces that go back to the time of Banach's book (Banach (1932)) and are related to the Baire category theorem. According to this theorem, a complete metric space (such as a Banach space, a Fréchet space or an F-space) cannot be equal to a union of countably many closed subsets with empty interiors. Therefore, a Banach space cannot be the union of countably many closed subspaces, unless it is already equal to one of them; a Banach space with a countable Hamel basis is finite-dimensional.

Corollary. Every one-to-one bounded linear operator from a Banach space onto a Banach space is an isomorphism.

This result is a direct consequence of the preceding Banach isomorphism theorem and of the canonical factorization of bounded linear maps.

James' Theorem. For a Banach space the following two properties are equivalent:

The theorem can be extended to give a characterization of weakly compact convex sets.

Banach spaces with a Schauder basis are necessarily separable, because the countable set of finite linear combinations with rational coefficients (say) is dense.

There are various norms that can be placed on the tensor product of the underlying vector spaces, amongst others the projective cross norm and injective cross norm introduced by A. Grothendieck in 1955.[57]

Finite dimensional Banach spaces are homeomorphic as topological spaces, if and only if they have the same dimension as real vector spaces.

Anderson–Kadec theorem (1965–66) proves[70] that any two infinite-dimensional separable Banach spaces are homeomorphic as topological spaces. Kadec's theorem was extended by Torunczyk, who proved[71] that any two Banach spaces are homeomorphic if and only if they have the same density character, the minimum cardinality of a dense subset.

Several concepts of a derivative may be defined on a Banach space. See the articles on the Fréchet derivative and the Gateaux derivative for details. The Fréchet derivative allows for an extension of the concept of a total derivative to Banach spaces. The Gateaux derivative allows for an extension of a directional derivative to locally convex topological vector spaces. Fréchet differentiability is a stronger condition than Gateaux differentiability. The quasi-derivative is another generalization of directional derivative that implies a stronger condition than Gateaux differentiability, but a weaker condition than Fréchet differentiability.