Balto-Slavic languages

The nature of the relationship of the Balto-Slavic languages has been the subject of much discussion from the very beginning of historical Indo-European linguistics as a scientific discipline. A few are more intent on explaining the similarities between the two groups not in terms of a linguistically "genetic" relationship, but by language contact and dialectal closeness in the Proto-Indo-European period.

Various schematic sketches of possible alternative Balto-Slavic language relationships; Van Wijk, 1923.

Common Balto-Slavic innovations include several other changes, which are also shared by several other Indo-European branches. These are therefore not direct evidence for the existence of a common Balto-Slavic family, but they do corroborate it.

Some examples of words shared among most or all Balto-Slavic languages:

The examples of previously discussed factors reveal that Slavic and Baltic languages “had put an emphasis” on different ways of reorganization, and used various [linguistic] tools irregularly; all changes despite their similarities in Baltic and Slavic languages are independent processes, which have a different basis and consequences. So, it is more logical to talk about the independent evolution from the very beginning rather than “separation” without postulating the idea of a common Proto-Balto-Slavic language.

The opponents of the Balto-Slavic theory had presented morphological properties that, according to them, prove that the Proto-Balto-Slavic language did not exist: