Appendix:Glossary

A glossary of terms used in the body of this dictionary. See also Wiktionary:Glossary, which contains terms used elsewhere in the Wiktionary community, and Appendix:Glossary of rhetoric, which explains commonly used rhetorical terms.

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A diacritic mark ( ´ ) used that can be placed above a number of letters in many languages of the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic writing systems.
A noun that denotes an agent who does the action denoted by the verb from which the noun is derived, such as "cutter" derived from "to cut".
The modification of a foreign (borrowed) word to make it more English in form.
A word form in which the word is lacking the final sound or syllable. Occurs in Italian, Spanish, and other languages.
A word form expressing large size, importance, intensity, or seniority.
The removal, from a text, of words or phrases that are considered offensive or vulgar.
"Circa" ("about"). Hence, a quotation from "c. 1924" or "ca. 1924" is a quotation from approximately 1924.
"Confer"; "see"; "compare"  – often used to indicate a word with similar, or opposite meaning.
Refers to a roundabout or indirect way of speaking; the use of more words than necessary to express an idea.
Expressing a collection or aggregate of individuals by a singular form.
The sequence of consonants, or the quality peculiar to the consonants of a given word or group of words.
Influence of one term on the development of another term whereby they come to have similar meanings or similar sound, conflation.
The process whereby a new word is created without changing the form, often by allowing the word to function as a new part of speech.
A debased or nonstandard form of a word, expression, or text, resulting from misunderstanding, transcription error, mishearing, etc.
(In Greek and in the Gaelic languages) A verb form which is not used independently but preceded by a particle to form the negative or a tense form.
(In Greek, Latin, and some Gaelic and Nordic languages) A verb with an active meaning which conjugates in a passive manner.
A post-POS heading listing terms in the same language that are morphological derivatives.
A word form expressing smallness, youth, endearment, unimportance, or contempt.
"Editor" (or sometimes "edition"). This abbreviation is often used in attributing quotations; the editor of a compilation is generally the individual in charge of selecting what works to include.
The removal of a phoneme or sequence of phonemes from a word, particularly at the beginning or end.
The omission of a word or phrase that can be inferred from the context.
A name used by a group or category of people to refer to themselves or their language (contrast exonym).
A word formed from a real or fictive person’s name. Compare toponym, a word derived from a place name.
A sound in a word without etymological reason, added for articulatory purposes.
A name for a place, people or language used by foreigners instead of the native-language version (the endonym).
"Floruit" (Latin for "he/she flourished"). Used when the exact dates of a person's birth and death are unknown to denote a date or period during which the person was known to have been alive or active.
A phenomenon when a consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than is done normally.
A successful brand name or trademark that has come to refer to the generic class of objects rather than the specific brand type.
In corpus linguistics, a word that occurs only once within a given corpus, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text.
In pragmatics, a term (word, phrase, or clause) used to lessen the force of an utterance: for instance, to avoid giving insult or bragging about one's knowledge.
A word that is spelled the same as another word, usually having a different etymology.
A word which is pronounced the same as another word but differs in spelling, meaning or origin.
A newly coined term, or newly adopted sense of an existing term, that has become very popular in a short time. It is kept provisionally as it is likely to remain in usage, even though it fails the "spanning at least one year" requirement of the Criteria For Inclusion on Wiktionary.
The imperfective past tense of a verb, indicating that the action described happened repeatedly, habitually or continuously.
A case used to express means or agency—and is generally indicated in English by "by" or "with" with the objective.
An expression of emotion ("ouch!", "wow!") or any of several kinds of expression that functions as a replacement of a sentence (prosentence) or that are not syntactically connected to a sentence, including curses ("damn!"), greetings ("hey", "bye"), response particles ("okay", "oh!", "m-hm", "huh?"), and hesitation markers ("uh", "er", "um"), and perhaps profanities, discourse markers and fillers.
The International Phonetic Alphabet; a standardized system for transcribing the sounds in any spoken language.
The phonological fusion of two consecutive words and the manner in which this occurs, for example intrusion, consonant-vowel linking, etc.
Belonging to the male grammatical gender, in languages that have gender distinctions.
A word that names an object from a single characteristic of it or of a closely related object, e.g. 'crown' for the sovereign in a monarchy.
Not conforming to the language as accepted by the majority of its speakers.
A category of verb form (a mood) that expresses wishes along with other meanings. Such a category occurs in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit.
post or after, often used in quotations. Hence, a quotation from "p. 1924" is a quotation from no earlier than 1924.
A set of all forms which contain a common element, especially the set of all inflectional forms of a word or a particular grammatical category.
A case that expresses a partial object or an action that is not performed to completion.
An indivisible unit of sound in a given language, an abstraction of the physical speech sounds.
A Chinese character (CJKV character) composed of a component which is related to the meaning the character and another component which is related to the sound of the character.
(as a context label for a word or phrase) Correct and consistent according to linguistic rules, but not in general use.
Some authorities or commentators recommend or warn against the listed usage.
A phrase expressing a basic truth which may be applied to common situations.
A term or sense that is attested but not used commonly either in spoken or written language.
A word that is not recorded in actual texts or other media, but has been recreated from its descendant forms, using the comparative method of linguistics.
Words in the same language that have strong etymological connections but are not derived terms.
A new word or phrase coined for an old object or concept whose original name has become used for something else or is no longer unique (such as acoustic guitar where guitar used to mean this but can now also refer to an electric guitar).
A sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant: /z/, /d/, /l/, or /n/) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment, most commonly /z/ to /r/.
A syntactic unit that expresses a complete thought and consists of one or more clauses joined together.
An adverb that modifies an entire clause or sentence rather than a single word or phrase.
A Latin adverb meaning "thus, so". It is traditionally placed inside square brackets and used in quotations to indicate that the preceding is not a copying error, but is in fact a verbatim reflection of the source. (For example, if a source contains a typographical error, someone quoting the source might add [sic] to make clear that the error was in the original source.)
Used to evoke a sense of current events being highly important. Examples of situations where solemn language is likely to be used are liturgical events, various ceremonies, and public speeches. Solemn terms are often dated or archaic, and once belonged in the neutral register.
A word or phrase with a meaning that is the same as, or very similar to, another word or phrase. Contrast antonym.
When a copyist has set wrong points upon the skeleton (rasm) of the (Arabic) script.
Redundant use of words, a pleonasm, an unnecessary and tedious repetition.
The insertion of one or more words between the components of a compound word.
In some languages, such as Okinawan, a topicalized form of a word is a contraction of that word, used as the phrase topic, with the topic marker.
A verb form in some Balto-Slavic languages that expresses a coincidentally proceeding or following action.
A verb that indicates more precisely the manner of doing something by replacing a verb of a more generalized meaning, e.g. “to boil” for “to cook”.
Additional information on current and historic use of the term in written or spoken language.
Any one of the readings of a given word or passage in a text which differ from copy to copy, from edition to edition, from manuscript to manuscript, or from translation to translation.
A sound produced by the vocal cords with relatively little restriction of the oral cavity, forming the prominent sound of a syllable.
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In certain languages (for example, Karajá language), men and women use or historically used distinct words and inflected forms.