Apollo Guidance Computer

The display and keyboard (DSKY) interface of the Apollo Guidance Computer mounted on the control panel of the command module, with the flight director attitude indicator (FDAI) above
Partial list of numeric codes for verbs and nouns in the Apollo Guidance Computer, printed for quick reference on a side panel
Photograph of the dual NOR gate chip used to build the Block II Apollo Guidance Computer. Connections (clockwise from top center) ground, inputs (3), output, power, output, inputs (3).

There were also four locations in core memory, at addresses 20–23, dubbed editing locations because whatever was stored there would emerge shifted or rotated by one bit position, except for one that shifted right seven bit positions, to extract one of the seven-bit interpretive op. codes that were packed two to a word. This was common to Block I and Block II AGCs.

The AGC had additional registers that were used internally in the course of operation:

An unconditional branch to the address specified by the instruction. The return address was automatically stored in the Q register, so the TC instruction could be used for subroutine calls.
Exchange the contents of memory with the contents of the A register. If the specified memory address is in fixed (read-only) memory, the memory contents are not affected, and this instruction simply loads register A. If it is in erasable memory, overflow "correction" is achieved by storing the leftmost of the 16 bits in A as the sign bit in memory, but there is no exceptional behavior like that of TS.
Load register A with the one's complement of the data referenced by the specified memory address.
Add the contents of memory to register A and store the result in A. The 2 leftmost bits of A may be different (overflow state) before and/or after the AD. The fact that overflow is a state rather than an event forgives limited extents of overflow when adding more than two numbers, as long as none of the intermediate totals exceed twice the capacity of a word.
Perform a bit-wise (boolean) and of memory with register A and store the result in register A.
Multiply the contents of register A by the data at the referenced memory address and store the high-order product in register A and the low-order product in register LP. The parts of the product agree in sign.
Divide the contents of register A by the data at the referenced memory address. Store the quotient in register A and the absolute value of the remainder in register Q. Unlike modern machines, fixed-point numbers were treated as fractions (notional decimal point just to right of the sign bit), so you could produce garbage if the divisor was not larger than the dividend; there was no protection against that situation. In the Block II AGC, a double-precision dividend started in A and L (the Block II LP), and the correctly signed remainder was delivered in L. That considerably simplified the subroutine for double precision division.
Subtract (one's complement) the data at the referenced memory address from the contents of register A and store the result in A.

Each timing pulse in a subsequence could trigger up to 5 control pulses. The control pulses were the signals which did the actual work of the instruction, such as reading the contents of a register onto the bus, or writing data from the bus into a register.

The Block I AGC initially had 12 kilowords of fixed memory, but this was later increased to 24 kilowords. Block II had 36 kilowords of fixed memory and 2 kilowords of erasable memory.

The AGC transferred data to and from memory through the G register in a process called the memory cycle. The memory cycle took 12 timing pulses (11.72 μs). The cycle began at timing pulse 1 (TP1) when the AGC loaded the memory address to be fetched into the S register. The memory hardware retrieved the data word from memory at the address specified by the S register. Words from erasable memory were deposited into the G register by timing pulse 6 (TP6); words from fixed memory were available by timing pulse 7. The retrieved memory word was then available in the G register for AGC access during timing pulses 7 through 10. After timing pulse 10, the data in the G register was written back to memory.

The AGC memory cycle occurred continuously during AGC operation. Instructions needing memory data had to access it during timing pulses 7–10. If the AGC changed the memory word in the G register, the changed word was written back to memory after timing pulse 10. In this way, data words cycled continuously from memory to the G register and then back again to memory.

The lower 15 bits of each memory word held AGC instructions or data, with each word being protected by a 16th odd parity bit. This bit was set to 1 or 0 by a parity generator circuit so a count of the 1s in each memory word would always produce an odd number. A parity checking circuit tested the parity bit during each memory cycle; if the bit didn't match the expected value, the memory word was assumed to be corrupted and a parity alarm panel light was illuminated.

The AGC responded to each interrupt by temporarily suspending the current program, executing a short interrupt service routine, and then resuming the interrupted program.

Interrupts could be triggered when the counters overflowed. The T3rupt and Dsrupt interrupts were produced when their counters, driven by a 100 Hz hardware clock, overflowed after executing many Pinc subsequences. The Uprupt interrupt was triggered after its counter, executing the Shinc subsequence, had shifted 16 bits of uplink data into the AGC.

The AGC had a power-saving mode controlled by a standby allowed switch. This mode turned off the AGC power, except for the 2.048 MHz clock and the scaler. The F17 signal from the scaler turned the AGC power and the AGC back on at 1.28 second intervals. In this mode, the AGC performed essential functions, checked the standby allowed switch, and, if still enabled, turned off the power and went back to sleep until the next F17 signal.

In the standby mode, the AGC slept most of the time; therefore it was not awake to perform the Pinc instruction needed to update the AGC's real time clock at 10 ms intervals. To compensate, one of the functions performed by the AGC each time it awoke in the standby mode was to update the real time clock by 1.28 seconds.

The standby mode was designed to reduce power by 5 to 10 W (from 70 W) during midcourse flight when the AGC was not needed. However, in practice, the AGC was left on during all phases of the mission and this feature was never used.

The AGC had a 16-bit read bus and a 16-bit write bus. Data from central registers (A, Q, Z, or LP), or other internal registers could be gated onto the read bus with a control signal. The read bus connected to the write bus through a non-inverting buffer, so any data appearing on the read bus also appeared on the write bus. Other control signals could copy write bus data back into the registers.

Data transfers worked like this: To move the address of the next instruction from the B register to the S register, an RB (read B) control signal was issued; this caused the address to move from register B to the read bus, and then to the write bus. A WS (write S) control signal moved the address from the write bus into the S register.

Fly By Wire testbed aircraft. The AGC DSKY is visible in the avionics bay
Documentation of AGC hardware design, and particularly the use of the new integrated circuits in place of transistors