Antimicrobial resistance

A CDC infographic on how antibiotic resistance (a major type of antimicrobial resistance) happens and spreads.
A CDC infographic on how antibiotic resistance spreads through farm animals.

There have been increasing public calls for global collective action to address the threat, including a proposal for international treaty on antimicrobial resistance. Further detail and attention is still needed in order to recognize and measure trends in resistance on the international level; the idea of a global tracking system has been suggested but implementation has yet to occur. A system of this nature would provide insight to areas of high resistance as well as information necessary for evaluating programs and other changes made to fight or reverse antibiotic resistance.

The five main mechanisms by which bacteria exhibit resistance to antibiotics are:

A number of mechanisms used by common antibiotics to deal with bacteria and ways by which bacteria become resistant to them.

There are several different types of germs that have developed a resistance over time.

Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii

The Action Plan was developed around five goals with focuses on strengthening health care, public health veterinary medicine, agriculture, food safety and research, and manufacturing. These goals, as listed by the White House, are as follows:

Distinguishing infections requiring antibiotics from self-limiting ones is clinically challenging. In order to guide appropriate use of antibiotics and prevent the evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance, diagnostic tests that provide clinicians with timely, actionable results are needed.