Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union

In 1991, by the decree of the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Russian Academy of Sciences was established on the basis of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.

The first president of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union was the well-known scientist, geologist Alexander Karpinsky, who previously held the presidency of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Attempts to establish state and party control over the previously independent Academy began in the mid-1920s: in 1925 the Academy was subordinated to the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, in 1928, under pressure from the authorities, a number of new Communist members were elected to it.

During the period from December 1929 to December 1930, over 100 people were arrested under the "Academic Case" (mainly experts in the humanities, primarily historians).

In February – April 1930, a new charter of the Academy of Sciences was developed and approved. The development of the project was entrusted to an academic commission approved by the plenary session of the Committee for the Management of Scientists and Educational Institutions of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, headed by Vyacheslav Volgin. The first meeting of the commission to draw up a charter and reorganize the Academy of Sciences was held on February 28, 1930. The draft of the new charter was discussed and approved by the session of the Academy of Sciences on March 31 – April 5, 1930, and it approved the first work plan of the Academy of Sciences for 1931–1932. On April 4, 1930, the charter was adopted at the General Assembly.

In 1930, in connection with the reorganization of the Soviet government, the Academy of Sciences was transferred to the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union.

By the Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union of December 14, 1933 "On the transfer of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union to the competence of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union" (before that, it was subordinated to the Committee for the management of scientists and educational institutions of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union).

The building of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union in Moscow (Alexandria Palace) from 1934. The photo was taken before 1940.

By the end of 1941, the Academy of Sciences had 7 branches (Azerbaijan, Armenian, Kazakh, Tajik, Turkmen, Uzbek, and Ural), two research bases (Kola and North), and one mountain taiga station. The scientific institutions of the branches and bases of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union at that time had about 1,500 scientific and technical workers, including 12 academicians, 11 corresponding members, 126 doctors, 284 candidates of science, 610 scientists without a scientific degree.

In 1992, the International Association of Academies of Sciences was established.

The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union had its own publishing house, a research fleet, a network of libraries. The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union awarded awards to scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of science.

The total number of active members of the Academy of Sciences on January 1, 1936 – 98 people.

The organs of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union were formed exclusively on an electoral basis. The supreme body is the General Meeting of Academicians and Corresponding Members. To guide the Academy in the periods between sessions of the General Assembly, it elects every 4 years the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.