Évariste Galois

Although his expulsion would have formally taken effect on 4 January 1831, Galois quit school immediately and joined the staunchly Republican artillery unit of the National Guard. He divided his time between his mathematical work and his political affiliations. Due to controversy surrounding the unit, soon after Galois became a member, on 31 December 1830, the artillery of the National Guard was disbanded out of fear that they might destabilize the government. At around the same time, nineteen officers of Galois's former unit were arrested and charged with conspiracy to overthrow the government.

"Ne pleure pas, Alfred ! J'ai besoin de tout mon courage pour mourir à vingt ans !"
(Don't weep, Alfred! I need all my courage to die at twenty!)

The final page of Galois's mathematical testament, in his own hand. The phrase "to decipher all this mess" ("déchiffrer tout ce gâchis") is on the second to the last line.

Tu prieras publiquement Jacobi ou Gauss de donner leur avis, non sur la vérité, mais sur l'importance des théorèmes.

Après cela, il y aura, j'espère, des gens qui trouveront leur profit à déchiffrer tout ce gâchis.

From these two theorems of Galois a result already known to Lagrange can be deduced. If r > 1 is a rational number that is not a perfect square, then