Manifold

The study of manifolds requires working knowledge of calculus and topology.

Figure 1: The four charts each map part of the circle to an open interval, and together cover the whole circle.

Together, these parts cover the whole circle, and the four charts form an atlas for the circle.

Figure 2: A circle manifold chart based on slope, covering all but one point of the circle.

The top, bottom, left, and right charts do not form the only possible atlas. Charts need not be geometric projections, and the number of charts is a matter of choice. Consider the charts

As for the circle, one may define one chart that covers the whole sphere excluding one point. Thus two charts are sufficient, but the sphere cannot be covered by a single chart.

Manifolds need not be connected (all in "one piece"); an example is a pair of separate circles.

Informally, a manifold is a space that is "modeled on" Euclidean space.

The atlas containing all possible charts consistent with a given atlas is called the maximal atlas (i.e. an equivalence class containing that given atlas). Unlike an ordinary atlas, the maximal atlas of a given manifold is unique. Though useful for definitions, it is an abstract object and not used directly (e.g. in calculations).

An atlas can also be used to define additional structure on the manifold. The structure is first defined on each chart separately. If all transition maps are compatible with this structure, the structure transfers to the manifold.

The structure on the manifold depends on the atlas, but sometimes different atlases can be said to give rise to the same structure. Such atlases are called compatible.

These notions are made precise in general through the use of pseudogroups.

A single manifold can be constructed in different ways, each stressing a different aspect of the manifold, thereby leading to a slightly different viewpoint.

A manifold can be constructed by gluing together pieces in a consistent manner, making them into overlapping charts. This construction is possible for any manifold and hence it is often used as a characterisation, especially for differentiable and Riemannian manifolds. It focuses on an atlas, as the patches naturally provide charts, and since there is no exterior space involved it leads to an intrinsic view of the manifold.

The manifold is constructed by specifying an atlas, which is itself defined by transition maps. A point of the manifold is therefore an equivalence class of points which are mapped to each other by transition maps. Charts map equivalence classes to points of a single patch. There are usually strong demands on the consistency of the transition maps. For topological manifolds they are required to be homeomorphisms; if they are also diffeomorphisms, the resulting manifold is a differentiable manifold.

Two manifolds with boundaries can be glued together along a boundary. If this is done the right way, the result is also a manifold. Similarly, two boundaries of a single manifold can be glued together.

Before the modern concept of a manifold there were several important results.

Different notions of manifolds have different notions of classification and invariant; in this section we focus on smooth closed manifolds.

Orientable surfaces can be visualized, and their diffeomorphism classes enumerated, by genus. Given two orientable surfaces, one can determine if they are diffeomorphic by computing their respective genera and comparing: they are diffeomorphic if and only if the genera are equal, so the genus forms a complete set of invariants.

This is much harder in higher dimensions: higher-dimensional manifolds cannot be directly visualized (though visual intuition is useful in understanding them), nor can their diffeomorphism classes be enumerated, nor can one in general determine if two different descriptions of a higher-dimensional manifold refer to the same object.

Naively, one could hope to develop an arsenal of invariant criteria that would definitively classify all manifolds up to isomorphism. Unfortunately, it is known that for manifolds of dimension 4 and higher, no program exists that can decide whether two manifolds are diffeomorphic.

Begin with an infinite circular cylinder standing vertically, a manifold without boundary. Slice across it high and low to produce two circular boundaries, and the cylindrical strip between them. This is an orientable manifold with boundary, upon which "surgery" will be performed. Slice the strip open, so that it could unroll to become a rectangle, but keep a grasp on the cut ends. Twist one end 180°, making the inner surface face out, and glue the ends back together seamlessly. This results in a strip with a permanent half-twist: the Möbius strip. Its boundary is no longer a pair of circles, but (topologically) a single circle; and what was once its "inside" has merged with its "outside", so that it now has only a single side. Similarly to the Klein Bottle below, this two dimensional surface would need to intersect itself in two dimensions, but can easily be constructed in three or more dimensions.

Take two Möbius strips; each has a single loop as a boundary. Straighten out those loops into circles, and let the strips distort into cross-caps. Gluing the circles together will produce a new, closed manifold without boundary, the Klein bottle. Closing the surface does nothing to improve the lack of orientability, it merely removes the boundary. Thus, the Klein bottle is a closed surface with no distinction between inside and outside. In three-dimensional space, a Klein bottle's surface must pass through itself. Building a Klein bottle which is not self-intersecting requires four or more dimensions of space.

A basic example of maps between manifolds are scalar-valued functions on a manifold,