Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages, and colors and breeds.

Size varies greatly among horse breeds, as with this full-sized horse and small pony.
Illustration of assorted breeds; slim, light hotbloods, medium-sized warmbloods and draft and pony-type coldblood breeds
When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch.
Diagram of evolution in horses showing size development, biometrical changes in the cranium and reduction of toes (left forefoot)

Domestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to 3500 BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world. The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.

Checking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care.