# Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a **group** is a set equipped with a binary operation that combines any two elements to form a third element in such a way that four conditions called group axioms are satisfied, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. One of the most familiar examples of a group is the set of integers together with the addition operation, but groups are encountered in numerous areas within and outside mathematics, and help focusing on essential structural aspects, by detaching them from the concrete nature of the subject of the study.^{[1]}^{[2]}

Groups share a fundamental kinship with the notion of symmetry. For example, a symmetry group encodes symmetry features of a geometrical object: the group consists of the set of transformations that leave the object unchanged and the operation of combining two such transformations by performing one after the other. Lie groups are the symmetry groups used in the Standard Model of particle physics; Poincaré groups, which are also Lie groups, can express the physical symmetry underlying special relativity; and point groups are used to help understand symmetry phenomena in molecular chemistry.

The concept of a group arose from the study of polynomial equations, starting with Évariste Galois in the 1830s, who introduced the term of *group* (*groupe*, in French) for the symmetry group of the roots of an equation, now called a Galois group. After contributions from other fields such as number theory and geometry, the group notion was generalized and firmly established around 1870. Modern group theory—an active mathematical discipline—studies groups in their own right.^{[a]} To explore groups, mathematicians have devised various notions to break groups into smaller, better-understandable pieces, such as subgroups, quotient groups and simple groups. In addition to their abstract properties, group theorists also study the different ways in which a group can be expressed concretely, both from a point of view of representation theory (that is, through the representations of the group) and of computational group theory. A theory has been developed for finite groups, which culminated with the classification of finite simple groups, completed in 2004.^{[aa]} Since the mid-1980s, geometric group theory, which studies finitely generated groups as geometric objects, has become an active area in group theory.

The following properties of integer addition serve as a model for the group axioms given in the definition below.

The integers, together with the operation +, form a mathematical object belonging to a broad class sharing similar structural aspects. To appropriately understand these structures as a collective, the following definition is developed.

Richard Borcherds in *Mathematicians: An Outer View of the Inner World* ^{[4]}

A group is a set, *G*, together with an operation ⋅ (called the *group law* of *G*) that combines any two elements *a* and *b* to form another element, denoted *a* ⋅ *b* or *ab*. To qualify as a group, the set and operation, (*G*, ⋅), must satisfy four requirements known as the *group axioms*:^{[5]}

The result of the group operation may depend on the order of the operands. In other words, the result of combining element *a* with element *b* need not yield the same result as combining element *b* with element *a*; the equation

may not be true for every two elements *a* and *b*. This equation always holds in the group of integers under addition, because *a* + *b* = *b* + *a* for any two integers (commutativity of addition). Groups for which the commutativity equation *a* ⋅ *b* = *b* ⋅ *a* always holds are called *abelian groups* (in honor of Niels Henrik Abel). The symmetry group described in the following section is an example of a group that is not abelian.

The identity element of a group *G* is often written as 1 or 1_{G},^{[6]} a notation inherited from the multiplicative identity. If a group is abelian, then one may choose to denote the group operation by + and the identity element by 0; in that case, the group is called an additive group. The identity element can also be written as *id*.

The set *G* is called the *underlying set* of the group (*G*, ⋅). Often the group's underlying set *G* is used as a short name for the group (*G*, ⋅). Along the same lines, shorthand expressions such as "a subset of the group *G*" or "an element of group *G*" are used when what is actually meant is "a subset of the underlying set *G* of the group (*G*, ⋅)" or "an element of the underlying set *G* of the group (*G*, ⋅)". Usually, it is clear from the context whether a symbol like *G* refers to a group or to an underlying set.

As this formulation of the definition avoids existential quantifiers, it is generally preferred for computing with groups and for computer-aided proofs. This formulation exhibits groups as a variety of universal algebra. It is also useful for talking of properties of the inverse operation, as needed for defining topological groups and group objects.

Two figures in the plane are congruent if one can be changed into the other using a combination of rotations, reflections, and translations. Any figure is congruent to itself. However, some figures are congruent to themselves in more than one way, and these extra congruences are called symmetries. A square has eight symmetries. These are:

These symmetries are functions. Each sends a point in the square to the corresponding point under the symmetry. For example, r_{1} sends a point to its rotation 90° clockwise around the square's center, and f_{h} sends a point to its reflection across the square's vertical middle line. Composing two of these symmetries gives another symmetry. These symmetries determine a group called the dihedral group of degree 4, denoted *D*_{4}. The underlying set of the group is the above set of symmetries, and the group operation is function composition.^{[7]} Two symmetries are combined by composing them as functions, that is, applying the first one to the square, and the second one to the result of the first application. The result of performing first *a* and then *b* is written symbolically *from right to left* as *b* ° *a* ("apply the symmetry *b* after performing the symmetry *a*"). (This is the usual notation for composition of functions.)

The group table on the right lists the results of all such compositions possible. For example, rotating by 270° clockwise (r_{3}) and then reflecting horizontally (f_{h}) is the same as performing a reflection along the diagonal (f_{d}). Using the above symbols, highlighted in blue in the group table:

Given this set of symmetries and the described operation, the group axioms can be understood as follows:

In contrast to the group of integers above, where the order of the operation is irrelevant, it does matter in D_{4}, as, for example, f_{h} ∘ r_{1} = f_{c} but r_{1} ∘ f_{h} = f_{d}. In other words, D_{4} is not abelian, which makes the group structure more difficult than the integers introduced first.

The modern concept of an abstract group developed out of several fields of mathematics.^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]} The original motivation for group theory was the quest for solutions of polynomial equations of degree higher than 4. The 19th-century French mathematician Évariste Galois, extending prior work of Paolo Ruffini and Joseph-Louis Lagrange, gave a criterion for the solvability of a particular polynomial equation in terms of the symmetry group of its roots (solutions). The elements of such a Galois group correspond to certain permutations of the roots. At first, Galois' ideas were rejected by his contemporaries, and published only posthumously.^{[11]}^{[12]} More general permutation groups were investigated in particular by Augustin Louis Cauchy. Arthur Cayley's *On the theory of groups, as depending on the symbolic equation θ ^{n} = 1* (1854) gives the first abstract definition of a finite group.

^{[13]}

Geometry was a second field in which groups were used systematically, especially symmetry groups as part of Felix Klein's 1872 Erlangen program.^{[14]} After novel geometries such as hyperbolic and projective geometry had emerged, Klein used group theory to organize them in a more coherent way. Further advancing these ideas, Sophus Lie founded the study of Lie groups in 1884.^{[15]}

The third field contributing to group theory was number theory. Certain abelian group structures had been used implicitly in Carl Friedrich Gauss' number-theoretical work *Disquisitiones Arithmeticae* (1798), and more explicitly by Leopold Kronecker.^{[16]} In 1847, Ernst Kummer made early attempts to prove Fermat's Last Theorem by developing groups describing factorization into prime numbers.^{[17]}

The convergence of these various sources into a uniform theory of groups started with Camille Jordan's *Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques* (1870).^{[18]} Walther von Dyck (1882) introduced the idea of specifying a group by means of generators and relations, and was also the first to give an axiomatic definition of an "abstract group", in the terminology of the time.^{[19]} As of the 20th century, groups gained wide recognition by the pioneering work of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius and William Burnside, who worked on representation theory of finite groups, Richard Brauer's modular representation theory and Issai Schur's papers.^{[20]} The theory of Lie groups, and more generally locally compact groups was studied by Hermann Weyl, Élie Cartan and many others.^{[21]} Its algebraic counterpart, the theory of algebraic groups, was first shaped by Claude Chevalley (from the late 1930s) and later by the work of Armand Borel and Jacques Tits.^{[22]}

The University of Chicago's 1960–61 Group Theory Year brought together group theorists such as Daniel Gorenstein, John G. Thompson and Walter Feit, laying the foundation of a collaboration that, with input from numerous other mathematicians, led to the classification of finite simple groups, with the final step taken by Aschbacher and Smith in 2004. This project exceeded previous mathematical endeavours by its sheer size, in both length of proof and number of researchers. Research is ongoing to simplify the proof of this classification.^{[23]} These days, group theory is still a highly active mathematical branch, impacting many other fields.^{[a]}

Basic facts about all groups that can be obtained directly from the group axioms are commonly subsumed under *elementary group theory*.^{[24]} For example, repeated applications of the associativity axiom show that the unambiguity of

generalizes to more than three factors. Because this implies that parentheses can be inserted anywhere within such a series of terms, parentheses are usually omitted.^{[25]}

The axioms may be weakened to assert only the existence of a left identity and left inverses. Both can be shown to be actually two-sided, so the resulting definition is equivalent to the one given above.^{[26]}

Two important consequences of the group axioms are the uniqueness of the identity element and the uniqueness of inverse elements. There can be only one identity element in a group, and each element in a group has exactly one inverse element. Thus, it is customary to speak of *the* identity, and *the* inverse of an element.^{[27]}

To prove the uniqueness of an inverse element of *a*, suppose that *a* has two inverses, denoted *b* and *c*, in a group (*G*, ⋅). Then

The term *b* on the first line above and the *c* on the last are equal, since they are connected by a chain of equalities. In other words, there is only one inverse element of *a*. Similarly, to prove that the identity element of a group is unique, assume *G* is a group with two identity elements *e* and *f*. Then *e* = *e* ⋅ *f* = *f*, hence *e* and *f* are equal.

In groups, the existence of inverse elements implies that division is possible: given elements *a* and *b* of the group *G*, there is exactly one solution *x* in *G* to the equation *x* ⋅ *a* = *b*, namely *b* ⋅ *a*^{−1}.^{[27]} In fact, we have

Uniqueness results by multiplying the two sides of the equation *x* ⋅ *a* = *b* by *a*^{−1}. The element *b* ⋅ *a*^{−1}, often denoted *b* / *a*, is called the *right quotient* of *b* by *a*, or the result of the *right division* of *b* by *a*.

Similarly there is exactly one solution *y* in *G* to the equation *a* ⋅ *y* = *b*, namely *y* = *a*^{−1} ⋅ *b*. This solution is the *left quotient* of *b* by *a*, and is sometimes denoted *a* \ *b*.

In general *b* / *a* and *a* \ *b* may be different, but, if the group operation is commutative (that is, if the group is abelian), they are equal. In this case, the group operation is often denoted as an addition, and one talks of *subtraction* and *difference* instead of division and quotient.

A consequence of this is that multiplication by a group element *g* is a bijection. Specifically, if *g* is an element of the group *G*, the function from *G* to itself that maps *h* ∈ *G* to *g* ⋅ *h* is a bijection. This function is called the *left translation* by *g* . Similarly, the *right translation* by *g* is the bijection from *G* to itself, that maps *h* to *h* ⋅ *g*. If *G* is abelian, the left and the right translation by a group element are the same.

To understand groups beyond the level of mere symbolic manipulations as above, more structural concepts have to be employed.^{[c]} There is a conceptual principle underlying all of the following notions: to take advantage of the structure offered by groups (which sets, being "structureless", do not have), constructions related to groups have to be *compatible* with the group operation. This compatibility manifests itself in the following notions in various ways. For example, groups can be related to each other via functions called group homomorphisms. By the mentioned principle, they are required to respect the group structures in a precise sense. The structure of groups can also be understood by breaking them into pieces called subgroups and quotient groups. The principle of "preserving structures"—a recurring topic in mathematics throughout—is an instance of working in a category, in this case the category of groups.^{[28]}

*Group homomorphisms*^{[g]} are functions that preserve group structure. A function *a*: *G* → *H* between two groups (*G*, ⋅) and (*H*, ∗) is called a *homomorphism* if the equation

holds for all elements *g*, *k* in *G*. In other words, the result is the same when performing the group operation after or before applying the map *a*. This requirement ensures that *a*(1_{G}) = 1_{H}, and also *a*(*g*)^{−1} = *a*(*g*^{−1}) for all *g* in *G*. Thus a group homomorphism respects all the structure of *G* provided by the group axioms.^{[29]}

Two groups *G* and *H* are called *isomorphic* if there exist group homomorphisms *a*: *G* → *H* and *b*: *H* → *G*, such that applying the two functions one after another in each of the two possible orders gives the identity functions of *G* and *H*. That is, *a*(*b*(*h*)) = *h* and *b*(*a*(*g*)) = *g* for any *g* in *G* and *h* in *H*. From an abstract point of view, isomorphic groups carry the same information. For example, proving that *g* ⋅ *g* = 1_{G} for some element *g* of *G* is equivalent to proving that *a*(*g*) ∗ *a*(*g*) = 1_{H}, because applying *a* to the first equality yields the second, and applying *b* to the second gives back the first.

Informally, a *subgroup* is a group *H* contained within a bigger one, *G*.^{[30]} Concretely, the identity element of *G* is contained in *H*, and whenever *h*_{1} and *h*_{2} are in *H*, then so are *h*_{1} ⋅ *h*_{2} and *h*_{1}^{−1}, so the elements of *H*, equipped with the group operation on *G* restricted to *H*, indeed form a group.

Given any subset *S* of a group *G*, the subgroup generated by *S* consists of products of elements of *S* and their inverses. It is the smallest subgroup of *G* containing *S*.^{[31]} In the introductory example above, the subgroup generated by r_{2} and f_{v} consists of these two elements, the identity element id and f_{h} = f_{v} ⋅ r_{2}. Again, this is a subgroup, because combining any two of these four elements or their inverses (which are, in this particular case, these same elements) yields an element of this subgroup.

In many situations it is desirable to consider two group elements the same if they differ by an element of a given subgroup. For example, in D_{4} above, once a reflection is performed, the square never gets back to the r_{2} configuration by just applying the rotation operations (and no further reflections), i.e., the rotation operations are irrelevant to the question whether a reflection has been performed. Cosets are used to formalize this insight: a subgroup *H* defines left and right cosets, which can be thought of as translations of *H* by arbitrary group elements *g*. In symbolic terms, the *left* and *right* cosets of *H* containing *g* are

The left cosets of any subgroup *H* form a partition of *G*; that is, the union of all left cosets is equal to *G* and two left cosets are either equal or have an empty intersection.^{[33]} The first case *g*_{1}*H* = *g*_{2}*H* happens precisely when *g*_{1}^{−1} ⋅ *g*_{2} ∈ *H*, i.e., if the two elements differ by an element of *H*. Similar considerations apply to the right cosets of *H*. The left and right cosets of *H* may or may not be equal. If they are, i.e., for all *g* in *G*, *gH* = *Hg*, then *H* is said to be a *normal subgroup*.

In some situations the set of cosets of a subgroup can be endowed with a group law, giving a *quotient group* or *factor group*. For this to be possible, the subgroup has to be normal. Given any normal subgroup *N*, the quotient group is defined by

This set inherits a group operation (sometimes called coset multiplication, or coset addition) from the original group *G*: (*gN*) ⋅ (*hN*) = (*gh*)*N* for all *g* and *h* in *G*. This definition is motivated by the idea (itself an instance of general structural considerations outlined above) that the map *G* → *G* / *N* that associates to any element *g* its coset *gN* be a group homomorphism, or by general abstract considerations called universal properties. The coset *eN * = *N* serves as the identity in this group, and the inverse of *gN* in the quotient group is (*gN*)^{−1} = (*g*^{−1})*N*.^{[e]}

Quotient groups and subgroups together form a way of describing every group by its *presentation*: any group is the quotient of the free group over the *generators* of the group, quotiented by the subgroup of *relations*. The dihedral group D_{4}, for example, can be generated by two elements *r* and *f* (for example, *r* = r_{1}, the right rotation and *f* = f_{v} the vertical (or any other) reflection), which means that every symmetry of the square is a finite composition of these two symmetries or their inverses. Together with the relations

the group is completely described. A presentation of a group can also be used to construct the Cayley graph, a device used to graphically capture discrete groups.

Sub- and quotient groups are related in the following way: a subset *H* of *G* can be seen as an injective map *H* → *G*, i.e., any element of the target has at most one element that maps to it. The counterpart to injective maps are surjective maps (every element of the target is mapped onto), such as the canonical map *G* → *G* / *N*.^{[y]} Interpreting subgroup and quotients in light of these homomorphisms emphasizes the structural concept inherent to these definitions alluded to in the introduction. In general, homomorphisms are neither injective nor surjective. Kernel and image of group homomorphisms and the first isomorphism theorem address this phenomenon.

Examples and applications of groups abound. A starting point is the group **Z** of integers with addition as group operation, introduced above. If instead of addition multiplication is considered, one obtains multiplicative groups. These groups are predecessors of important constructions in abstract algebra.

Groups are also applied in many other mathematical areas. Mathematical objects are often examined by associating groups to them and studying the properties of the corresponding groups. For example, Henri Poincaré founded what is now called algebraic topology by introducing the fundamental group.^{[36]} By means of this connection, topological properties such as proximity and continuity translate into properties of groups.^{[i]} For example, elements of the fundamental group are represented by loops. The second image at the right shows some loops in a plane minus a point. The blue loop is considered null-homotopic (and thus irrelevant), because it can be continuously shrunk to a point. The presence of the hole prevents the orange loop from being shrunk to a point. The fundamental group of the plane with a point deleted turns out to be infinite cyclic, generated by the orange loop (or any other loop winding once around the hole). This way, the fundamental group detects the hole.

In more recent applications, the influence has also been reversed to motivate geometric constructions by a group-theoretical background.^{[j]} In a similar vein, geometric group theory employs geometric concepts, for example in the study of hyperbolic groups.^{[37]} Further branches crucially applying groups include algebraic geometry and number theory.^{[38]}

In addition to the above theoretical applications, many practical applications of groups exist. Cryptography relies on the combination of the abstract group theory approach together with algorithmical knowledge obtained in computational group theory, in particular when implemented for finite groups.^{[39]} Applications of group theory are not restricted to mathematics; sciences such as physics, chemistry and computer science benefit from the concept.

Many number systems, such as the integers and the rationals enjoy a naturally given group structure. In some cases, such as with the rationals, both addition and multiplication operations give rise to group structures. Such number systems are predecessors to more general algebraic structures known as rings and fields. Further abstract algebraic concepts such as modules, vector spaces and algebras also form groups.

The desire for the existence of multiplicative inverses suggests considering fractions

In modular arithmetic, two integers are added and then the sum is divided by a positive integer called the *modulus.* The result of modular addition is the remainder of that division. For any modulus, *n*, the set of integers from 0 to *n* − 1 forms a group under modular addition: the inverse of any element *a* is *n* − *a*, and 0 is the identity element. This is familiar from the addition of hours on the face of a clock: if the hour hand is on 9 and is advanced 4 hours, it ends up on 1, as shown at the right. This is expressed by saying that 9 + 4 equals 1 "modulo 12" or, in symbols,

For any prime number *p*, there is also the multiplicative group of integers modulo *p*.^{[40]} Its elements are the integers 1 to *p* − 1. The group operation is multiplication modulo *p*. That is, the usual product is divided by *p* and the remainder of this division is the result of modular multiplication. For example, if *p* = 5, there are four group elements 1, 2, 3, 4. In this group, 4 · 4 = 1, because the usual product 16 is equivalent to 1, which divided by 5 yields a remainder of 1. for 5 divides 16 − 1 = 15, denoted

The primality of *p* ensures that the product of two integers neither of which is divisible by *p* is not divisible by *p* either, hence the indicated set of classes is closed under multiplication.^{[o]} The identity element is 1, as usual for a multiplicative group, and the associativity follows from the corresponding property of integers. Finally, the inverse element axiom requires that given an integer *a* not divisible by *p*, there exists an integer *b* such that

A *cyclic group* is a group all of whose elements are powers of a particular element *a*.^{[43]} In multiplicative notation, the elements of the group are:

where *a*^{2} means *a* ⋅ *a*, and *a ^{−3}* stands for

*a*

^{−1}⋅

*a*

^{−1}⋅

*a*

^{−1}= (

*a*⋅

*a*⋅

*a*)

^{−1}etc.

^{[h]}Such an element

*a*is called a generator or a primitive element of the group. In additive notation, the requirement for an element to be primitive is that each element of the group can be written as

In the groups **Z**/*n***Z** introduced above, the element 1 is primitive, so these groups are cyclic. Indeed, each element is expressible as a sum all of whose terms are 1. Any cyclic group with *n* elements is isomorphic to this group. A second example for cyclic groups is the group of *n*-th complex roots of unity, given by complex numbers *z* satisfying *z*^{n} = 1. These numbers can be visualized as the vertices on a regular *n*-gon, as shown in blue at the right for *n* = 6. The group operation is multiplication of complex numbers. In the picture, multiplying with *z* corresponds to a counter-clockwise rotation by 60°.^{[44]} Using some field theory, the group **F**_{p}^{×} can be shown to be cyclic: for example, if *p* = 5, 3 is a generator since 3^{1} = 3, 3^{2} = 9 ≡ 4, 3^{3} ≡ 2, and 3^{4} ≡ 1.

Some cyclic groups have an infinite number of elements. In these groups, for every non-zero element *a*, all the powers of *a* are distinct; despite the name "cyclic group", the powers of the elements do not cycle. An infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to (**Z**, +), the group of integers under addition introduced above.^{[45]} As these two prototypes are both abelian, so is any cyclic group.

The study of finitely generated abelian groups is quite mature, including the ; and reflecting this state of affairs, many group-related notions, such as center and commutator, describe the extent to which a given group is not abelian.^{[46]}

*Symmetry groups* are groups consisting of symmetries of given mathematical objects—be they of geometric nature, such as the introductory symmetry group of the square, or of algebraic nature, such as polynomial equations and their solutions.^{[47]} Conceptually, group theory can be thought of as the study of symmetry.^{[t]} Symmetries in mathematics greatly simplify the study of geometrical or analytical objects. A group is said to act on another mathematical object *X* if every group element can be associated to some operation on *X* and the composition of these operations follows the group law. In the rightmost example below, an element of order 7 of the (2,3,7) triangle group acts on the tiling by permuting the highlighted warped triangles (and the other ones, too). By a group action, the group pattern is connected to the structure of the object being acted on.

In chemical fields, such as crystallography, space groups and point groups describe molecular symmetries and crystal symmetries. These symmetries underlie the chemical and physical behavior of these systems, and group theory enables simplification of quantum mechanical analysis of these properties.^{[48]} For example, group theory is used to show that optical transitions between certain quantum levels cannot occur simply because of the symmetry of the states involved.

Not only are groups useful to assess the implications of symmetries in molecules, but surprisingly they also predict that molecules sometimes can change symmetry. The Jahn-Teller effect is a distortion of a molecule of high symmetry when it adopts a particular ground state of lower symmetry from a set of possible ground states that are related to each other by the symmetry operations of the molecule.^{[49]}^{[50]}

Likewise, group theory helps predict the changes in physical properties that occur when a material undergoes a phase transition, for example, from a cubic to a tetrahedral crystalline form. An example is ferroelectric materials, where the change from a paraelectric to a ferroelectric state occurs at the Curie temperature and is related to a change from the high-symmetry paraelectric state to the lower symmetry ferroelectric state, accompanied by a so-called soft phonon mode, a vibrational lattice mode that goes to zero frequency at the transition.^{[51]}

Such spontaneous symmetry breaking has found further application in elementary particle physics, where its occurrence is related to the appearance of Goldstone bosons.

Finite symmetry groups such as the Mathieu groups are used in coding theory, which is in turn applied in error correction of transmitted data, and in CD players.^{[52]} Another application is differential Galois theory, which characterizes functions having antiderivatives of a prescribed form, giving group-theoretic criteria for when solutions of certain differential equations are well-behaved.^{[u]} Geometric properties that remain stable under group actions are investigated in (geometric) invariant theory.^{[53]}

Matrix groups consist of matrices together with matrix multiplication. The *general linear group* GL(*n*, **R**) consists of all invertible *n*-by-*n* matrices with real entries.^{[54]} Its subgroups are referred to as *matrix groups* or *linear groups*. The dihedral group example mentioned above can be viewed as a (very small) matrix group. Another important matrix group is the special orthogonal group SO(*n*). It describes all possible rotations in *n* dimensions. Via Euler angles, rotation matrices are used in computer graphics.^{[55]}

*Representation theory* is both an application of the group concept and important for a deeper understanding of groups.^{[56]}^{[57]} It studies the group by its group actions on other spaces. A broad class of group representations are linear representations, i.e., the group is acting on a vector space, such as the three-dimensional Euclidean space **R**^{3}. A representation of *G* on an *n*-dimensional real vector space is simply a group homomorphism

from the group to the general linear group. This way, the group operation, which may be abstractly given, translates to the multiplication of matrices making it accessible to explicit computations.^{[w]}

Given a group action, this gives further means to study the object being acted on.^{[x]} On the other hand, it also yields information about the group. Group representations are an organizing principle in the theory of finite groups, Lie groups, algebraic groups and topological groups, especially (locally) compact groups.^{[56]}^{[58]}

*Galois groups* were developed to help solve polynomial equations by capturing their symmetry features.^{[59]}^{[60]} For example, the solutions of the quadratic equation *ax*^{2} + *bx* + *c* = 0 are given by

Exchanging "+" and "−" in the expression, i.e., permuting the two solutions of the equation can be viewed as a (very simple) group operation. Similar formulae are known for cubic and quartic equations, but do *not* exist in general for degree 5 and higher.^{[61]} Abstract properties of Galois groups associated with polynomials (in particular their solvability) give a criterion for polynomials that have all their solutions expressible by radicals, i.e., solutions expressible using solely addition, multiplication, and roots similar to the formula above.^{[62]}

The problem can be dealt with by shifting to field theory and considering the splitting field of a polynomial. Modern Galois theory generalizes the above type of Galois groups to field extensions and establishes—via the fundamental theorem of Galois theory—a precise relationship between fields and groups, underlining once again the ubiquity of groups in mathematics.

A group is called *finite* if it has a finite number of elements. The number of elements is called the order of the group.^{[63]} An important class is the *symmetric groups* S_{N}, the groups of permutations of *N* letters. For example, the symmetric group on 3 letters S_{3} is the group consisting of all possible orderings of the three letters *ABC*, i.e., contains the elements *ABC*, *ACB*, *BAC*, *BCA*, *CAB*, *CBA*, in total 6 (factorial of 3) elements. This class is fundamental insofar as any finite group can be expressed as a subgroup of a symmetric group S_{N} for a suitable integer *N*, according to Cayley's theorem. Parallel to the group of symmetries of the square above, S_{3} can also be interpreted as the group of symmetries of an equilateral triangle.

The order of an element *a* in a group *G* is the least positive integer *n* such that *a*^{n} = *e*, where *a*^{n} represents

i.e., application of the operation ⋅ to *n* copies of *a*. (If ⋅ represents multiplication, then *a*^{n} corresponds to the *n*th power of *a*.) In infinite groups, such an *n* may not exist, in which case the order of *a* is said to be infinity. The order of an element equals the order of the cyclic subgroup generated by this element.

More sophisticated counting techniques, for example counting cosets, yield more precise statements about finite groups: Lagrange's Theorem states that for a finite group *G* the order of any finite subgroup *H* divides the order of *G*. The Sylow theorems give a partial converse.

The dihedral group (discussed above) is a finite group of order 8. The order of r_{1} is 4, as is the order of the subgroup *R* it generates (see above). The order of the reflection elements f_{v} etc. is 2. Both orders divide 8, as predicted by Lagrange's theorem. The groups **F**_{p}^{×} above have order *p* − 1.

Mathematicians often strive for a complete classification (or list) of a mathematical notion. In the context of finite groups, this aim leads to difficult mathematics. According to Lagrange's theorem, finite groups of order *p*, a prime number, are necessarily cyclic (abelian) groups **Z**_{p}. Groups of order *p*^{2} can also be shown to be abelian, a statement which does not generalize to order *p*^{3}, as the non-abelian group D_{4} of order 8 = 2^{3} above shows.^{[64]} Computer algebra systems can be used to list small groups, but there is no classification of all finite groups.^{[q]} An intermediate step is the classification of finite simple groups.^{[r]} A nontrivial group is called *simple* if its only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself.^{[s]} The Jordan–Hölder theorem exhibits finite simple groups as the building blocks for all finite groups.^{[65]} Listing all finite simple groups was a major achievement in contemporary group theory. 1998 Fields Medal winner Richard Borcherds succeeded in proving the monstrous moonshine conjectures, a surprising and deep relation between the largest finite simple sporadic group—the "monster group"—and certain modular functions, a piece of classical complex analysis, and string theory, a theory supposed to unify the description of many physical phenomena.^{[66]}

Many groups are simultaneously groups and examples of other mathematical structures. In the language of category theory, they are group objects in a category, meaning that they are objects (that is, examples of another mathematical structure) which come with transformations (called morphisms) that mimic the group axioms. For example, every group (as defined above) is also a set, so a group is a group object in the category of sets.

for any constant *c*. Matrix groups over these fields fall under this regime, as do adele rings and adelic algebraic groups, which are basic to number theory.^{[68]} Galois groups of infinite field extensions such as the absolute Galois group can also be equipped with a topology, the so-called Krull topology, which in turn is central to generalize the above sketched connection of fields and groups to infinite field extensions.^{[69]} An advanced generalization of this idea, adapted to the needs of algebraic geometry, is the étale fundamental group.^{[70]}

*Lie groups* (in honor of Sophus Lie) are groups which also have a manifold structure, i.e., they are spaces looking locally like some Euclidean space of the appropriate dimension.^{[71]} Again, the additional structure, here the manifold structure, has to be compatible, i.e., the maps corresponding to multiplication and the inverse have to be smooth.

A standard example is the general linear group introduced above: it is an open subset of the space of all *n*-by-*n* matrices, because it is given by the inequality

Lie groups are of fundamental importance in modern physics: Noether's theorem links continuous symmetries to conserved quantities.^{[73]} Rotation, as well as translations in space and time are basic symmetries of the laws of mechanics. They can, for instance, be used to construct simple models—imposing, say, axial symmetry on a situation will typically lead to significant simplification in the equations one needs to solve to provide a physical description.^{[v]} Another example are the Lorentz transformations, which relate measurements of time and velocity of two observers in motion relative to each other. They can be deduced in a purely group-theoretical way, by expressing the transformations as a rotational symmetry of Minkowski space. The latter serves—in the absence of significant gravitation—as a model of space time in special relativity.^{[74]} The full symmetry group of Minkowski space, i.e., including translations, is known as the Poincaré group. By the above, it plays a pivotal role in special relativity and, by implication, for quantum field theories.^{[75]} Symmetries that vary with location are central to the modern description of physical interactions with the help of gauge theory.^{[76]}

**^** **a:** Mathematical Reviews lists 3,224 research papers on group theory and its generalizations written in 2005.

**^** **aa:** The classification was announced in 1983, but gaps were found in the proof. See classification of finite simple groups for further information.

**^** **b:** The closure axiom is already implied by the condition that ⋅ be a binary operation. Some authors therefore omit this axiom. However, group constructions often start with an operation defined on a superset, so a closure step is common in proofs that a system is a group. Lang 2002

**^** **c:** See, for example, the books of Lang (2002, 2005) and Herstein (1996, 1975).

**^** **d:** However, a group is not determined by its lattice of subgroups. See Suzuki 1951.

**^** **e:** The fact that the group operation extends this canonically is an instance of a universal property.

**^** **f:** For example, if *G* is finite, then the size of any subgroup and any quotient group divides the size of *G*, according to Lagrange's theorem.

**^** **g:** The word homomorphism derives from Greek ὁμός—the same and μορφή—structure.

**^** **h:** The additive notation for elements of a cyclic group would be *t* ⋅ *a*, *t* in **Z**.

**^** **i:** See the Seifert–van Kampen theorem for an example.

**^** **j:** An example is group cohomology of a group which equals the singular cohomology of its classifying space.

**^** **k:** Elements which do have multiplicative inverses are called units, see Lang 2002, §II.1, p. 84.

**^** **l:** The transition from the integers to the rationals by adding fractions is generalized by the field of fractions.

**^** **m:** The same is true for any field *F* instead of **Q**. See Lang 2005, §III.1, p. 86.

**^** **n:** For example, a finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a field is necessarily cyclic. See Lang 2002, Theorem IV.1.9. The notions of torsion of a module and simple algebras are other instances of this principle.

**^** **o:** The stated property is a possible definition of prime numbers. See prime element.

**^** **p:** For example, the Diffie-Hellman protocol uses the discrete logarithm.

**^** **q:** The groups of order at most 2000 are known. Up to isomorphism, there are about 49 billion. See Besche, Eick & O'Brien 2001.

**^** **r:** The gap between the classification of simple groups and the one of all groups lies in the extension problem, a problem too hard to be solved in general. See Aschbacher 2004, p. 737.

**^** **s:** Equivalently, a nontrivial group is simple if its only quotient groups are the trivial group and the group itself. See Michler 2006, Carter 1989.

**^** **t:** More rigorously, every group is the symmetry group of some graph; see Frucht's theorem, Frucht 1939.

**^** **u:** More precisely, the monodromy action on the vector space of solutions of the differential equations is considered. See Kuga 1993, pp. 105–113.

**^** **v:** See Schwarzschild metric for an example where symmetry greatly reduces the complexity of physical systems.

**^** **w:** This was crucial to the classification of finite simple groups, for example. See Aschbacher 2004.

**^** **x:** See, for example, Schur's Lemma for the impact of a group action on simple modules. A more involved example is the action of an absolute Galois group on étale cohomology.

**^** **y:** Injective and surjective maps correspond to mono- and epimorphisms, respectively. They are interchanged when passing to the dual category.